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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drinkface="Times New Roman Star"питьface="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ec?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ys?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"@s-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-, es?- (R., ¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"@s/-face="Times New Roman Star"is-face="Times New Roman Star"is-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"es-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"i:c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 168, EDT 19, Ё—“я 1, 391, ≈горов 66, Stachowski 129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:l/c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"work, deedface="Times New Roman Star"работа, делоface="Times New Roman Star"is? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ys? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i>s?face="Times New Roman Star"is? (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is, ysface="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i:s?

face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i:.s?face="Times New Roman Star"@s/face="Times New Roman Star"i:s
face="Times New Roman Star"is?
face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"i>sface="Times New Roman Star"isface="Times New Roman Star"i>s?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"is
face="Times New Roman Star"is?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 254, VEWT 174, Ё—“я 1, 395-396, ≈горов 66.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to do, to makeface="Times New Roman Star"делатьface="Times New Roman Star"qyl- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyl- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl- (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qil-face="Times New Roman Star"qil-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"xyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-
face="Times New Roman Star"@s/-x@l 'дела/'face="Times New Roman Star"kyn-face="Times New Roman Star"gyn-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyl-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 616, VEWT 263, Ё—“я 6, 205-206, Stachowski 88. Turk. *kyl-ync? 'deed' > Mong. kilinc?e 'sin' (see Clark 1980, 43).
face="Times New Roman Star"*em-ig, *em-c?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 to suck 3 nippleface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (жен.) 2 сосать 3 сосокface="Times New Roman Star"emig 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (MK), e.mig 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ik 1face="Times New Roman Star"im- 2, imc?e|k 1face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (Pav. C.), emc?ek 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ak 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2, a"mc?a"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"emyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"mz?|a"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, imz?|ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"@w|m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emi:j 1face="Times New Roman Star"emij 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emig 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emij 'udder'face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"imsa"k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 41-2, EDT 158-9, Ё—“я 1, 271-272, ≈горов 63, Ћексика 273-274, Stachowski 45. PT *em-ig and *em-c?ek (the latter form is first attested in the 13th c.) are derived from *em- 'to suck'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o":n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to grow, riseface="Times New Roman Star"расти, подниматьс€face="Times New Roman Star"o"n- (u"n-) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"n- (u"n-) (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"o"n- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"un-face="Times New Roman Star"u"n-face="Times New Roman Star"u"n-
face="Times New Roman Star"o":n-


face="Times New Roman Star"hin-face="Times New Roman Star"@w|n-face="Times New Roman Star"u":n-face="Times New Roman Star"u":n-face="Times New Roman Star"u"n-
face="Times New Roman Star"o"n-face="Times New Roman Star"o"n-




face="Times New Roman Star"o"n-

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 169, VEWT 372, Ё—“я 1, 530-532, ћудрак ƒисс. 77, 137, ≈горов 40-41, Clark 1977, 161, Stachowski 255.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.k(k)iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"twoface="Times New Roman Star"дваface="Times New Roman Star"eki (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"e.ki (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ikeface="Times New Roman Star"iki (AH, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"s?igyface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ekeface="Times New Roman Star"igiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"a"kki, a"kki.face="Times New Roman Star"ikk@face="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ijiface="Times New Roman Star"ixiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ikeface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ekyface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"is?kyface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 39, EDT 100-1, Ё—“я 1, 337-339, ≈горов 67-68, Stachowski 124.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ek-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to decrease, be insufficient 2 common, ordinary, low class; fault, faultyface="Times New Roman Star"1 уменьшатьс€, быть недостаточным 2 обычный, низкородный; недостаток, недостаточныйface="Times New Roman Star"egsu"- 1, egil 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"egsu"- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eksi-, eksil- 1, eksik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"eksu"- 1 (Abush.), o"ksu"-, o"ksu"l- 1 (Pav. C.), o"ksu"k 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"o"gsu"- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"a"skik 2face="Times New Roman Star"egis-, egsil- 1, egsik 2



face="Times New Roman Star"iks@l- 1, j@ksek 2



face="Times New Roman Star"o"ksu"- 1, o"ksu"k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"jisil- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eksil- 1, eksik 2


face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 257-258, ≈горов 77, ћудрак ƒисс. 199; EDT 106, 117. The Chuv. Anlaut is not quite clear (iks@l- < *j@ks@l-?; one of the cases with prothetic j-, so the openness / closedness of the vowel in PT remains unknown); ‘едотов 1, 193 derives Chuv. j@ksik from PT *jek (v. sub *l/a:\k`e\), but this is phonetically impossible.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.l/it-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hearface="Times New Roman Star"слышатьface="Times New Roman Star"es?id- (Orkh.), es?it- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-; dial. (Mishar) is?- 'hear' (““ƒ— 156), (Bar.) is?e|n- 'listen' (яЅ“ 140)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (Abush. 63)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"es?et- (Kashg., ”Ќ— 109)
face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"is- / ist-

face="Times New Roman Star"is?u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"ilt-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-

face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"est-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-face="Times New Roman Star"es?t-face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"s?it-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?ti-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, Ё—“я 1, 318-319, ≈горов 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Ku"a"r. a"s?-, Kach. es?- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *el/- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zaja,czkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. an|la- 'to hear' < an| 'mind'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to scratch, scrape 2 to knead, press 3 to grind, crush 4 to soak, dilute 5 to rub, smearface="Times New Roman Star"1 скрести, царапать 2 разминать, давить 3 толочь, растирать 4 мочить, разжижать 5 растирать, обмазывать
face="Times New Roman Star"ez- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"iz- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez- (Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"a"z- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"a"z- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"a"z- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ir- 2, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2face="Times New Roman Star"id|- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ez- 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 279, Ё—“я 1, 235-236, ≈горов 71, ‘едотов 1, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.ri-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to meltface="Times New Roman Star"та€ть
face="Times New Roman Star"eru"- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri- (Abushk.)face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-
face="Times New Roman Star"a"ri-face="Times New Roman Star"ere-face="Times New Roman Star"ir@-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"ir@l-face="Times New Roman Star"ir-face="Times New Roman Star"ir-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"ire-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"jeri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 289-290, Stachowski 128, EDT 198.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:.r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to reach 2 to passface="Times New Roman Star"1 достигать 2 проходить мимоface="Times New Roman Star"er- (OUygh.) 1, er-t- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"er-, dial. e:r-, ir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"er- (Pav. C., AH) 1, ert- (CCum.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. eris?- 1, ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"irde:- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"er- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eris- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 288-289, 303, ‘едотов 1,172-173. Ra"sa"nen (VEWT 46) connects also PT *eril/- 'to contest, challenge' (Ё—“я 1, 293-294) - which, together with Mong. *eri- 'to seek, search' (HY ere- `to hope'), should be rather kept apart (possibly a separate PA root *erV). Turk. > Hung. e/r- 'to reach', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ed-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to tan (leather)face="Times New Roman Star"дубить (шкуру)







face="Times New Roman Star"ejma" 'leather bag with clabber'face="Times New Roman Star"ej-



face="Times New Roman Star"ir-z/@ 'skinner'face="Times New Roman Star"etirik `skin scraper'












face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 236-237, 335-336, ћудрак ƒисс. 171, Ћексика 377.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to walk, trot, ambleface="Times New Roman Star"ходить, брести, ехать иноходьюface="Times New Roman Star"es?- (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"es?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"es?-face="Times New Roman Star"a"s?t- (dial.)







face="Times New Roman Star"es?- (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"is-face="Times New Roman Star"is-






face="Times New Roman Star"ies?-



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 255, Ё—“я 1, 316, Stachowski 129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ju"r/u"mface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"grapeface="Times New Roman Star"виноградface="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"m (OUygh. - med.)face="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"m (MK), ju"zu"m (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"jo"zemface="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"m (Pav. C.), ju"zu"m (Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"uzumface="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"u"c?u"m (< Mong.?)face="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"u"zu"m



face="Times New Roman Star"iz/@m



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"zimface="Times New Roman Star"z?u"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"ju"zimface="Times New Roman Star"jo"d|o"mface="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"ju"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"izim, ju"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"z?u"zim
face="Times New Roman Star"ju"zu"mface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 288, VEWT 214, Ё—“я 1, 625, ‘едотов 1, 173. Turk. > Mong. u"z?|u"m 'grapes', see TMN 2, 54, Clark 1980, 40.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.t(ky-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 handful 2 pinch(ful) 3 barb of the fish-fork hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 горсть, пригоршн€ 2 щепотка 3 бородка, зазубрина крючка остроги

face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2, atky 'weft; wooden fork; strap on footwear, scarf'face="Times New Roman Star"atqyry (dial.) 'cross-beam'
face="Times New Roman Star"o|tim 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atGy 'cross-bar', atym 2face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atqaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ydam 'armful'

face="Times New Roman Star"adym 1, atqaq 3, atpaq 'hanger for horse harness', atpaq-ta-l- 'to hitch on to smth.', atpan|na- 'grasp (of a child)'
face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2








face="Times New Roman Star"≈горов 344, ћудрак ƒисс. 85, VEWT 31. If we exclude obvious loans from Mong. adqu-, all the other forms clearly fall into two types. 1) PT *a.tym 'handful, pinchful' 2) PT *Atky- 'smth. hitched, clutching, clinging'. The latter (Tuva atkak) is linked in EDT 47 with OUygh. atqaq 'vikalpa'. There is a number of OUygh. Buddhist terms that can be derived from a stem meaning 'grasp, hitch': atqaq '1) vikalpa, attachment to the material world (whence borrowed in Mong. atqag| 'illusion, prejudice'), 2) vis.aya, 'idea, notion, subject', atqaq-lyg| 'appertaining to smth.', atqa-n- 'be connected, clinging to (the material world)', atqa-nc?-syz 'devoid of sense perceptions', atqang|u 'vis.aya', atqang|u-lug| 'correlated' (cf. (alquqa) atqang|ulug| tutz?|aqlyg| 'correlated (with everything) (and) grasping (everything)'), see ƒ“— 68, EDT 47. This all seems to indicate a primary root *a.t- meaning both 'to cling, hitch on to smth., grasp' and 'a grasp, handful' (also 'armful' if we take into account the Chuv. meaning). Note that in Siberian languages this root (*a.t-ka-k) is additionally confused with the local word for 'gills' - which has a quite separate Altaic origin (see under *p`a/ta\(kV) 'fish fin').
face="Times New Roman Star"*u:-dy-, *u:-dy-k-la-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to sleepface="Times New Roman Star"спатьface="Times New Roman Star"udy- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ud|y- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"uju-face="Times New Roman Star"joqla-face="Times New Roman Star"uju- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"uxla-face="Times New Roman Star"uxla-face="Times New Roman Star"uzu-
face="Times New Roman Star"u:qla-face="Times New Roman Star"uzu-

face="Times New Roman Star"u:_, u:. 'sleep' (n.)face="Times New Roman Star"yjg|ъ 'sleep' (n.)face="Times New Roman Star"utuj-face="Times New Roman Star"utuj-face="Times New Roman Star"udu-face="Times New Roman Star"udu-face="Times New Roman Star"uqta-; ujqu (n.)face="Times New Roman Star"ujyqta-face="Times New Roman Star"ujkla-face="Times New Roman Star"joqla-face="Times New Roman Star"z?|uqla-face="Times New Roman Star"uju-face="Times New Roman Star"juxla-face="Times New Roman Star"ujqyla-face="Times New Roman Star"ux|la-face="Times New Roman Star"uju- 'to stiffen'face="Times New Roman Star"The form *u:dykla- is derived from *u:dyk 'sleepy', derived from *u:dy- 'to sleep', which in its turn is derived from *u: 'sleep' (preserved in Yak., Dolg. u:, Khal. u:). See VEWT 508, EDT 2, 42-3, 46-7, 49, Ё—“я 1, 579-581, 586-587, ≈горов 342, Stachowski 247.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касатьс€ ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, Ё—“я 1, 99-100, 111-112, ≈горов 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.lky-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to bless, praise 2 blessing, praise 3 curseface="Times New Roman Star"1 благословл€ть, восхвал€ть 2 благословение, хвала 3 прокл€тие, проклинатьface="Times New Roman Star"alqa- (OUygh.) 1, alqys? (OUygh., Yen.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alkys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|lqis? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqis? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys 2face="Times New Roman Star"alGys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2

face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ylg|an 3face="Times New Roman Star"alg|a:- 1, alg|y: 2 ( < Tuva)face="Times New Roman Star"alga:- 'to shamanize' ( < Tuva)face="Times New Roman Star"a'lg|ys? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"alqa- 1, alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys 2; alqa- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"alqys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys 2
face="Times New Roman Star"alg|ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 137-138, EDT 137-138, ≈горов 343, Stachowski 31, ћудрак ƒисс. 181 (regarding the Yak. form as borrowed < Tuva because of its vocalism).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:.r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to be tired, exhausted 2 to become leanface="Times New Roman Star"1 уставать 2 худетьface="Times New Roman Star"ar- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- (Sangl., Abush., Pav. C., AH, Qutb, IM) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ho|ri- 1, (Khor.) ha:r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"aryG (Adj.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"harqa:n, harqan (Ger.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"yr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"y:r- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"hary- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 22, Ё—“я 1, 160-162, EDT 193, ≈горов 343.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.r-ynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 morning 2 tomorrow 3 next yearface="Times New Roman Star"1 утро 2 завтра 3 следующий годface="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 1 (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 1, 2 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3





face="Times New Roman Star"yran 2face="Times New Roman Star"sarsyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"harsyn 1




face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ja:ryn 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryn 3

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 970, VEWT 190, Ё—“я 4, 147-148, ≈горов 343, Ћексика 80, Stachowski 97. Ra"sa"nen derives the stem from *jar- 'to shine, glitter', but this is dubious both for phonetic reasons (OT has jaru- 'to shine', but jaryn 'morning') and because of external evidence.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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