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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*du"n|u"rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a relative by marriageface="Times New Roman Star"1 сват, сваха, посредник при сватовстве 2 свойственникface="Times New Roman Star"tu"n|u"r 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n|u"r 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"du"nu"r 1, dial. du"nu"s? 'родители новобрачных'











face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n|u"r 2







face="Times New Roman Star"du"nu"r 'сватовство'



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 523, Рясянен 1955, 172. Yak. > Evk., Evn. tun|ur 2 (ТМС 2, 217).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sogur ( ? -a-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a small fur animal (marmot)face="Times New Roman Star"вид грызуна (сурок)
face="Times New Roman Star"sog|ur (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"suwyr







face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrg|an 'a small rodent'
face="Times New Roman Star"sъw|vъw|r






face="Times New Roman Star"hywyr





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 815, VEWT 416, 425, ЭСТЯ 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.tku-c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a stinging insectface="Times New Roman Star"кусающее насекомое
face="Times New Roman Star"qatquc? (MK - Argu) 'a thing which stings like a scorpion'











face="Times New Roman Star"xyt-kajъk 'жужелица'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 599, ДТС. Cf. also (MK) qod|g|u 'fly'. The Chuvash word is analysed as 'hard-bird' or 'hard-animal', which is probably a folk-etymological reanalysis of *ka.tku-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAlbalface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a stone pillar erected on a graveface="Times New Roman Star"каменная колонна на могиле, истуканface="Times New Roman Star"balbal (Orkh., Yen.)



























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 333. Borrowed (possibly from an unattested Bulgar source) in Old Russ. bolvanъ, Hung. ba/lva/ny 'stone idol' (suggestion of Melioranski, evidently preferable to the hypothesis of Korsch-Dmitriev < Pers. pahlava:n, see Шипова 84-85, Аникин 114).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAlmaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a thick quilted coatface="Times New Roman Star"толстая стеганая курткаface="Times New Roman Star"jalma (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jalma (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 929, TMN 4, 190-192.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sAp ( ? -b)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a turn (to do smth.)face="Times New Roman Star"очередь (что-нибудь делать)face="Times New Roman Star"sab (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 782, VEWT 401 (erroneously united with sap 'handle').
face="Times New Roman Star"*KEbelface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a well-bred fast horseface="Times New Roman Star"благородная быстрая лошадь
face="Times New Roman Star"kevel, kevil (MK, KB)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 689.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bolface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"abundant, fullface="Times New Roman Star"обильный, полный

face="Times New Roman Star"bolface="Times New Roman Star"mul
face="Times New Roman Star"bo|l (Chag.), mo|l (Uzb.)


face="Times New Roman Star"bol



face="Times New Roman Star"pu"le-mes; pu"l-l@ 'stalwart'



face="Times New Roman Star"mol








face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 2, 184-185.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KArakanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"acaciaface="Times New Roman Star"акация
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan[a] (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|ro|g|o|n


face="Times New Roman Star"GaraGan 'солянка древовидная'face="Times New Roman Star"xarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qaraqan


face="Times New Roman Star"xarag|an, Todzh. qarag|an
face="Times New Roman Star"qarag|anface="Times New Roman Star"qarag|an
face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qarag|an





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 657, ЭСТЯ 5, 293-294, TMN 1, 275. Turk. > Mong. qarag|ana, whence again into Turk. (Khak. xarg|ana etc., see ЭСТЯ ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ku"du"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"affairface="Times New Roman Star"делоface="Times New Roman Star"is? ku"du"k (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"is? ku"d|u"k (KB)











face="Times New Roman Star"k@r@s?- 'to hire, be hired'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 702.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gEneface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"again, also, howeverface="Times New Roman Star"снова, также, однако
face="Times New Roman Star"kene (MKypch.)face="Times New Roman Star"gene




face="Times New Roman Star"ga"na"



















face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 4, 115.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jylkyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"age; aged (grown-up) animalface="Times New Roman Star"возраст; взрослое животноеface="Times New Roman Star"jylqy (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jylqy (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jylqyface="Times New Roman Star"jylqy (AH, Ettuhf.), ylqy (Бор. Бад., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jilqiface="Times New Roman Star"z?|i(l)qa, z?ilqi
face="Times New Roman Star"ilxy, ylxy (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jylqyface="Times New Roman Star"c?ylg|yface="Times New Roman Star"c?ylg|yface="Times New Roman Star"d/ylqy

face="Times New Roman Star"sylg|y
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ylg|y
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ylqyface="Times New Roman Star"z?ylqyface="Times New Roman Star"jylqyface="Times New Roman Star"jylqyface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ylqy, zylqy
face="Times New Roman Star"jylqyface="Times New Roman Star"z?ylqy
face="Times New Roman Star"jylqy, jilqyface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 925-926, ЭСТЯ 4, 281-282, Лексика 444.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"age; yearface="Times New Roman Star"возраст; годface="Times New Roman Star"jas? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (Ettuhf., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?asface="Times New Roman Star"c?as?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?, d/as?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"s/olface="Times New Roman Star"sa:s


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 975-6, ЭСТЯ 4, 161-163, Федотов 2, 130, TMN 4, 97, Лексика 84.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kopface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"allface="Times New Roman Star"весьface="Times New Roman Star"qop (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qop (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 281, EDT 579.
face="Times New Roman Star"*topface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"all, completely; complex, collectionface="Times New Roman Star"весь, целиком; совокупностьface="Times New Roman Star"top (OUygh.), top-la- 'to collect' (Orkh., OUygh. - YB)
face="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"tuplyq 'place where cattle is lying', tupla- 'to collect'face="Times New Roman Star"top (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"to.pface="Times New Roman Star"top
face="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"top




face="Times New Roman Star"tobo:- 'to gather'


face="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"tup
face="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"topface="Times New Roman Star"top
face="Times New Roman Star"topla- 'to collect'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 489, EDT 493. Clauson considers the form top (rare in OUygh.) to be contracted < tolp < tolup < tol- 'to be full', which is quite dubious phonetically.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAmugface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"all, togetherface="Times New Roman Star"все, вместеface="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (OUygh.), qamag| (Orkh., OUygh.), qamyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kamu
face="Times New Roman Star"qamug| (Qutb., Буд.), qamuq (Abush.)




face="Times New Roman Star"xamyxface="Times New Roman Star"qamyqface="Times New Roman Star"qamyq



face="Times New Roman Star"xamyq










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 627, ЭСТЯ 5, 243-244. Modern forms like Kirgh., Kaz. qama- 'to surround, besiege', qamala- id., 'to gather in a crowd' etc. (see ЭСТЯ 5, 159) should be rather regarded as mongolisms.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAsaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"also, as wellface="Times New Roman Star"также, кроме тогоface="Times New Roman Star"basa 'right after' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"basa 'afterwards' (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) basa (AH, Ad-Durr.)face="Times New Roman Star"base 'frequently, often'


face="Times New Roman Star"basaface="Times New Roman Star"pazaface="Times New Roman Star"pazaface="Times New Roman Star"baza

face="Times New Roman Star"byha 'in the course of' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"baza
face="Times New Roman Star"basaface="Times New Roman Star"basa (R)







face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 371 (but not from *bas- 'press'!). Turk. > Mong. basa (Clark 1980, 39, Щербак 1997, 104).
face="Times New Roman Star"*-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"an ending of the 2d personface="Times New Roman Star"окончание 2-го л.face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (Orkh., OUygh.), -g| (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|
face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n, -jface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Морфология 23-26, 28, 32.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ke:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"anger, maliceface="Times New Roman Star"гнев, злобаface="Times New Roman Star"kek (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kek (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"dial. kik
face="Times New Roman Star"kek


face="Times New Roman Star"ka":je- 'to hate'



face="Times New Roman Star"kagъr 'chaos, hell', kagъrza vyrt- 'to die (out)', vyz/ъ kagъrъl 'starve'face="Times New Roman Star"kegedi 'spiteful'


face="Times New Roman Star"kekface="Times New Roman Star"kek




face="Times New Roman Star"kek

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 707, VEWT 247-248, ЭСТЯ 5, 24-25.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"n|u"l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"angleface="Times New Roman Star"угол
face="Times New Roman Star"mu"n|u"s? (Rabg.)
face="Times New Roman Star"mu"jes?face="Times New Roman Star"mu"n|u"s? (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"mujus?, mujys?








face="Times New Roman Star"mun|, mun|nukface="Times New Roman Star"mun|, munnuk


face="Times New Roman Star"mu"jisface="Times New Roman Star"mu"jisface="Times New Roman Star"mu"ges? (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"mu"ju"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"mu"ju"s?, mu"vu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"mu"jes?
face="Times New Roman Star"mujus?, mu"ju"s?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 344, EDT 771, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 182 (on a different etymology of Yak. mun|nuq see Clark 1977, 133).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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