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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*sojaguface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cock's spur 2 pine needle, toothpick 3 a sharp objectface="Times New Roman Star"1 петушиная шпора 2 сосновая иголка, зубочистка 3 острый предмет
face="Times New Roman Star"sojag|u 1 (MK)









face="Times New Roman Star"sojoq `mountain top; young horn'




face="Times New Roman Star"soja: 'wire for pipe-cleaning' (< Mong.?); sojaq `mountain' (ФиЛ 227)face="Times New Roman Star"sojo: 3face="Times New Roman Star"sojaw 2






face="Times New Roman Star"sojaw 'a metallic pendant on a Caucasian belt'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 425, EDT 859. All Kypchak forms may also be < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hit, beat, crushface="Times New Roman Star"бить, ударять, сокрушатьface="Times New Roman Star"soq- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"soq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sok-face="Times New Roman Star"suq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq- (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"so.q-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-
face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"sox-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-
face="Times New Roman Star"sъw|x-face="Times New Roman Star"og|us-face="Times New Roman Star"ogus-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"so'q-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-face="Times New Roman Star"huq-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-
face="Times New Roman Star"sog|-face="Times New Roman Star"soq-

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 805, Лексика 396, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 190. Homonymous *sok- 'to pierce, stick into' and *sok- 'to weave, knit' (see ЭСТЯ ibid.) may represent originally different roots.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sogy-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"coldface="Times New Roman Star"холодныйface="Times New Roman Star"sog|yq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sog|yq (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"sog|ukface="Times New Roman Star"sywyqface="Times New Roman Star"sawuq/sawug| (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|vuqface="Times New Roman Star"sog|aqface="Times New Roman Star"soqface="Times New Roman Star"sojuGface="Times New Roman Star"sovuqface="Times New Roman Star"so:xface="Times New Roman Star"so:qface="Times New Roman Star"so:qface="Times New Roman Star"sovuqface="Times New Roman Star"siv@

face="Times New Roman Star"so:kface="Times New Roman Star"so:qface="Times New Roman Star"su:kface="Times New Roman Star"suwyqface="Times New Roman Star"suwyqface="Times New Roman Star"hywyqface="Times New Roman Star"su:qface="Times New Roman Star"su:qface="Times New Roman Star"su:qface="Times New Roman Star"suwyqface="Times New Roman Star"sox|face="Times New Roman Star"sowuqface="Times New Roman Star"Derived from PT *sogy- 'to cool, get cold', see VEWT 425, EDT 808 (*sogy-k), 806 (*sogy-), ЭСТЯ 7, Лексика 15.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sin|o"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"boneface="Times New Roman Star"костьface="Times New Roman Star"su"n|o"k (Orkh.), su"n|u"k (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"su"n|u"k (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"su"n|u"k, so"n|ek, su"mu"k (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"so"je|kface="Times New Roman Star"su"n|ek (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"sujakface="Times New Roman Star"so"n|a"kface="Times New Roman Star"symykface="Times New Roman Star"su"mu"kface="Times New Roman Star"su"n|k, su"jekface="Times New Roman Star"so":kface="Times New Roman Star"so":kface="Times New Roman Star"so":kface="Times New Roman Star"simikface="Times New Roman Star"s?ъw|mъw|face="Times New Roman Star"un|uox|face="Times New Roman Star"on|uokface="Times New Roman Star"so":kface="Times New Roman Star"so":kface="Times New Roman Star"so"o"kface="Times New Roman Star"sujekface="Times New Roman Star"su"jekface="Times New Roman Star"ho"ja"kface="Times New Roman Star"su"jek

face="Times New Roman Star"su"jekface="Times New Roman Star"senixface="Times New Roman Star"su"jekface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 437, EDT 838-839, Лексика 260-261, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 195. With different suffixation cf. Uygh. so"n|ga"c? 'thigh, hip, thigh bone'; Yak., Dolg. o"n|u"rges 'cartilage' (Stachowski 200).
face="Times New Roman Star"*s[e]go"l ( / *so"gil)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wartface="Times New Roman Star"бородавкаface="Times New Roman Star"so"go"l (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sigil (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sigilface="Times New Roman Star"so"ja"lface="Times New Roman Star"sigil, su"ku"l, su"ja"l (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"suga"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"ga"l
face="Times New Roman Star"zijilface="Times New Roman Star"sin|n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"so":l
face="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"sijilface="Times New Roman Star"s?ъw|klъw|, s?@w|g@w|l (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"su"jelface="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jelface="Times New Roman Star"hu">ja"l

face="Times New Roman Star"su"velface="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jel
face="Times New Roman Star"su"jelface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 429, EDT 820, ЭСТЯ 7. Some irregularities are due to the root's expressive nature.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sybface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"waterface="Times New Roman Star"водаface="Times New Roman Star"s/ub (Orkh.), sub, suv (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"suv (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"sywface="Times New Roman Star"su (AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"suvface="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suvface="Times New Roman Star"sug|face="Times New Roman Star"sug|face="Times New Roman Star"su:face="Times New Roman Star"suwface="Times New Roman Star"s?yvface="Times New Roman Star"u:; utax 'thirst' < *sub-sakface="Times New Roman Star"u:face="Times New Roman Star"sug|face="Times New Roman Star"sug|face="Times New Roman Star"su:face="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suwface="Times New Roman Star"hywface="Times New Roman Star"su:face="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suwface="Times New Roman Star"suface="Times New Roman Star"suwface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 431, TMN 3, 281-2, EDT 783-4, Лексика 88, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 247. The reconstruction of *y is conditioned by the Chuv. palatalization. Cf. also *sybu- 'to become watery', *sybu-k 'watery, liquid' (ЭСТЯ 7). Other Common Turkic derivatives are *syb-sy- 'to become watery' and *syb-sa- 'to be(come) thirsty', see the analysis in ЭСТЯ 7 and EDT 792. The derivative *syb-sy 'a watery decoction' (not attested as such, but cf. OT suvsus? id. (EDT 792)) was borrowed in Mong. as sub(a)su id. (L 733), Khalkha suvs 'watery'. Modern Kypchak and Siberian forms like Chag. susyn, Kirgh. su:sun etc. may reflect a secondary loan from Mongolian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a k. of cloak 2 lap, skirt 3 used clothing 4 bedding under the saddle 5 woman's gown 6 gown 7 gusset (in clothes)face="Times New Roman Star"1 род плаща 2 подол, фалда 3 старая, потертая одежда 4 подстилка под седло, чепрак 5 женский халат 6 халат 7 клин (в одежде)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apg|ut 'a padded garment' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aput 3, c?aprak 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1, c?apraq 4, c?abu 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1 (R; Pav. C. jamag|lyg| c?apan 'mended cloak'), c?abuq 2 (Pav. C.), (OKypch.) c?apg|ut 3 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|po|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyt 5, c?apan 6, c?apy 'ornamental trimming for clothes' lap'face="Times New Roman Star"sabyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyr 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abug| 'trimmed section on a woman's tunic'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?avyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu: 7; c?apan 6, c?apan-c?apqyt 'upper clothes', c?opqut 'quilted coat under armour; expensive costume'face="Times New Roman Star"s?abu 2, s?apan 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 'gusset-like front part of gown's laps'face="Times New Roman Star"sapan 6, sabyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apraq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 7, s?apan 6, s?obyt 'used things', s?opqyt 'rags'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyw 7, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 396, TMN 3, 47, Аникин 643. Several derivations are clearly distinguishable: a) *c?ap-gut 'upper clothes, garment' (with later development > 'used clothes'); b) *c?ap-rak 'bedding under the saddle'; c) *c?ap-an 'cloak, gown'; d) *c?ap-gu 'lap, gusset' - all clearly related to each other.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plaitface="Times New Roman Star"1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al-(mo|q) 4, c?alma 1; band, facingface="Times New Roman Star"c?al-ma-s?- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 3, c?als?yq 'entangled (of a rope)'face="Times New Roman Star"salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 2, dial. (Leb.) c?aly- 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?alba 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?alys?qaq 'criss-crossing'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alg|yc? 7, c?alma 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?alma 1, s?aluw 7face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 8, salma 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?alma 1, c?al- 9, c?alman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 8, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 9, c?alma 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. c?alma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *c?al-ma). Note Chuv. c?ъw|lg|a- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. c?ulg|a- < PT *c?og-la-, but in this case one would rather expect c?ulg|a- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *c?ial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *c?al- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 furuncle 2 rash, pimpleface="Times New Roman Star"1 фурункул 2 сыпь, прыщ
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqan (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwan 1, c?ebi 'цыпки'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipqo|n 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iban1, c?ivza" 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:ban 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyrg|an 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybytqan, (dial. - Верб.) c?ibis?ke 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|ban, s/ъw|van 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ivis?ki 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ibis?ki 2, 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjqan, dial. s?uba 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'обметать губы', sebes?ke 'цыпки'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yban 1face="Times New Roman Star"cyban, c?yban 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 106, EDT 396, TMN 3, 1151, Егоров 208, Федотов 2, 96. The Kaz. and Nogh. forms may be < Mong. (although they differ semantically).
face="Times New Roman Star"*si:l/ / *sy:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 tooth 2 sharp stickface="Times New Roman Star"1 зуб 2 вертел, острый колышекface="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s@s 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъl 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 424, TMN 3, 324, EDT 856-7. Turk. > Kalm. c?is?, s?is? (KW 442). An interesting common Turkic derivative is *si:l/-le > *si:le 'судак' (fish name), as "fish with teeth" (Turkm. si:le, Chuv. s?ъla etc., see ЭСТЯ 7; Turk. > Hung. su"llo?, see MNyTESz 3, 628): such derivation may be postulated on analogy with KKalp. ti>sli, Uzb. tis?li (balyq) 'судак', lit. 'fish with teeth'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"branchface="Times New Roman Star"ветка
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yp, c?ybyq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyk, c?ubukface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq [c?ybyrqy 'lash']face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iviqface="Times New Roman Star"c?iviq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuGface="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byqface="Times New Roman Star"symyxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъbъk 'lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yvyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"sybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"cybuq, cubuq, c?ubuq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 395, VEWT 106, TMN 3, 1059, Лексика 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403-404. Forms meaning 'lash' reflect a contamination with PT *c?Abyk 'lash' (v. sub *c?`e:/bV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimblefulface="Times New Roman Star"1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik, c?imz?|ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?e-t-, c?emc?e-n- 1, c?emc?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1, c?imdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) c?ymdy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im-, c?imc?i-, c?imc?i-la-, c?imdi-, c?imi-t- 1, c?imdi-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi-, c?imqi- 1, c?ymdim 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|/ume- 'to pick out, pull out'face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik-le- 1, c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mmu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|y-la- 1, c?ymc?yx 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?imc?i- 1, s?imc?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y- 1, c?ymc?y-m 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?@b@t- 1, c?@pt@m, c?@pk@m 2 (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymc?y- 1, s?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymz?|y- 1, s?ymz?|ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y-, c?ymc?y-la- 1, c?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymty- 1, s?ymqym 2face="Times New Roman Star"semte- 1, semte-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imde- 1, c?imdik 2, cymda-, c?ymda- 'to bite'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1, s?ym, s?yms?ym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. c?@b@t- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *c?`i/p`u/ or *c?`abo.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Лексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ygyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stamp, ram (ground) 2 stamped snow 3 boundary, limit 4 small pathface="Times New Roman Star"1 топтать, утаптывать (землю) 2 утоптанный снег 3 граница 4 узкая тропа
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|ru- 1, c?yg|yr 4 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 4, 'coomb, trace of an avalanche'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'thawed spot' (Sangl.), 'snow stamped by strong wind' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijir 'trace'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ir jol 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yGyr 3


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'bad road'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 'spot on snow or ground with many tracks'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr, c?ijir 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjyr 'stamped'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr-t- 'to stamp snow, grass'




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, 107, EDT 409, 410. Cf. perhaps also PT *c?ig- 'to draw a line' (VEWT 110). Turk. > Mong. Khalkha c?ijr 'stamped road', Kalm. c?i:r 'eaten and stamped grass' (KW 443).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 buds 2 lily 3 sphere, globe, fistface="Times New Roman Star"1 почки 2 лилия 3 шар, округлость, кулак











face="Times New Roman Star"c?omur 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|mъw|r 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?omur 1 (Рас. ФиЛ 89, 231)









face="Times New Roman Star"The Chuvash form points to *-y-. The root is very localized, but seems to be distinct from *c?ym- / *c?um- 'top; stick with a knob' (although a contamination was of course possible).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"steppe, desertface="Times New Roman Star"степь, пустыняface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l



face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'field, plaza'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'steppe, desert'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"su"l 'desert'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. c?o"l 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT c?o"lig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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