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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 89-93, ≈горов 82, ћудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>ja-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to esteem 2 to pity, look after 3 veryface="Times New Roman Star"1 почитать 2 беречь, жалеть 3 очень, сильноface="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1, ajy 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- (MK) 1, 2, ajy 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aj- 2, aja- dial. 1face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aji- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajin 'cult, ceremony'face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2, aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2 (in ajaba:n 'remorseless')

face="Times New Roman Star"oja- 'to care'

face="Times New Roman Star"aj 'well'
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10-11, EDT 267-8, Ё—“я 1, 101-102, ‘едотов 2, 298. Deriving *aja- 'to respect, esteem' from *aj 'fear' (VEWT 11) is hardly plausible. Clauson (EDT 182) thinks that OUygh. ajy 'very' is an unusually early example of the elision of -g in an/yg| 'evil', which means 'very' in many OUygh. texts, but this is hardly plausible phonetically; so it may belong here, together with Khak. aj 'very' (although the final narrow y is a problem). Sevortyan relates here also SUygh. ajyg| 'good omen, good luck', but this may be a reflex of OUygh., Karakh. ajyq 'vow, promise' (EDT 270).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ady-r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to separateface="Times New Roman Star"отдел€тьface="Times New Roman Star"adyr- (Orkh., OUygh.); adyn (OUygh.) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yr- (MK); ad|yn (MK) 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajir-face="Times New Roman Star"ajra-, ajri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"azyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajry-face="Times New Roman Star"hadru-, hadur-face="Times New Roman Star"ojъr-face="Times New Roman Star"atyr-; atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"atyn 'other'face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"adyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"ajyr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 6, EDT 60, 66-67, Ё—“я 1, 93, 114-116, ‘едотов 2, 270, Stachowski 39. Turk. > MMo, WMong. az?|ira- (see ўербак 1997, 94), whence again Uzb. az?|ra- etc. (see Ё—“я ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Aj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to revolve, rotate, go round 2 to tarry 3 to lead, lead round 4 to speed up 5 to driveface="Times New Roman Star"1 вращатьс€, вертетьс€, обходить 2 мешкать 3 кружить, водить 4 ускор€ть 5 гнать

face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-(n)- 1, ajlak 'шатающийс€ без дела'face="Times New Roman Star"@jl@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajn-yt- 4, ajla-, @jl@- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla- 1, ajda- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"ajgy-s-yn- 'to tarry; to go, visit frequently' (*ajyg-ys?-yn-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajda- 5, ajnal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajla-, ajlan- 1, (h)ajda- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajlan- 'to move, visit'face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 106-107, 109-110. The forms meaning `rotate, go round, walk in circles' are hardly connected with aj `moon'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*an/ar/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"clear sky; frostface="Times New Roman Star"€сное небо; морозface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajas (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (Sangl.), ajaz, ajas (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"ajo|zface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajasface="Times New Roman Star"ajas; ajyz (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"haja:zface="Times New Roman Star"ojar

face="Times New Roman Star"ajas
face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajad|face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"ajaz/s

face="Times New Roman Star"ajazface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 102-3; VEWT 11; TMN 2, 170; Ћексика 13, ‘едотов 2, 298. A different suffixation is seen in Tur. (dial.) ajam, Kaz., Kirgh. ajyq 'clear (weather'). A derivative *an/-gyr/- (pointing to original *-n/-) is found in Kaz. an|yzaq, Turkm. an|zaq 'cold with dry wind' (see Ё—“я ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касатьс€ ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, Ё—“я 1, 99-100, 111-112, ≈горов 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 device, trick, deceit 2 to deceiveface="Times New Roman Star"1 обман, хитрость 2 обманыватьface="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), al-ta- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1 (MK, KB), alda- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"a^l 1, aldat- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aldi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), al-da-n- 'to be deceived, to err'face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1, a:lda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2






face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 93, Ё—“я 1, 126-127. A discussion of albasty ( = Mong. albin) see in TMN 2, 109-110. Turk. *a:l-da- > Mong. alda- 'to deceive' (MA, cf. also TMN 2, 116, ўербак 1997, 97) > Evk. alda- etc. (Doerfer MT 109). On Mong. alda- 'to lose' see *a:\le 'weak, tired'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A>n|(k)ytface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wild duckface="Times New Roman Star"дика€ уткаface="Times New Roman Star"an|yt (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"an|yt (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"angut 'огарь', ankyt (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"anqud (Sngl)face="Times New Roman Star"ang|irt 'red duck'
face="Times New Roman Star"an|ytface="Times New Roman Star"anGut-boGaz 'длинношеий'face="Times New Roman Star"an|k 'red duck'face="Times New Roman Star"a:t













face="Times New Roman Star"anqyt, ankit 'ostrich, vulture, dragon'

face="Times New Roman Star"han|qutface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 21, Ћексика 172. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 129) PT *an|gyrt is a quite artificial construct: it is based on occasional modern forms (like Uzb. an|g|irt) which reflect a contamination of *an|yt and the borrowed Mong. an|g|yr (with the influence of an|gyrt 'careless'). All old sources (see EDT 176) reflect only *an|yt. (Yak. n/ynta:la 'горбоносый турпан' (ѕек.), despite VEWT, < Evk. niltalbuki 'a black duck with white head, from nilta- 'to loose hair', lit. 'bald bird' “ћ— I 593; anny, andy < TM *andi; ann/a, ann/aryjar dial. 'a k. of sea bird, мор€нка' (ƒ—яя 48) < Mong. an|gir).
face="Times New Roman Star"*an|-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to be wide open 2 to be perplexed, astonished 3 wide open 4 fool, simpleton 5 obtuse, stupid 6 astonished 7 to have one's mouth opened 8 to be drowsy, faint 9 to look at with surprise 10 to gapeface="Times New Roman Star"1 быть широко открытым 2 быть удивленным, опешить 3 широко открытый 4 дурак, простак 5 бестолковый 6 удивленный 7 разинуть рот 8 быть сонным, в€лым 9 смотреть с удивлением 10 зи€ть
face="Times New Roman Star"an|yl ac?uq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) anuk, an|yz 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|g|y-min|ge bul- 3; (dial.) an|g|yl 5face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) ang|y 6 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"an|raj- 2, 7


face="Times New Roman Star"an|al- 2, an|qar- 2, 7face="Times New Roman Star"an|aj- 'to miss', an|maj- 2, 7, an|max 'standing with one's mouth open'



face="Times New Roman Star"an|ar- 8
face="Times New Roman Star"an|g|ada- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"an|qaj-, an|g|ar- 1, 9 (< Mong.?), an|qo: 4, an|yr- 2, an|yraj- 10face="Times New Roman Star"an|tar-, an|yr- 2, an|qaw 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|qy-tin|ke 'daffy', an|ra 4, an|s?aj- 7



face="Times New Roman Star"an|qaw 4

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 184, Ё—“я 1, 155, 156-157.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:ryface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wasp, beeface="Times New Roman Star"пчела, оса
face="Times New Roman Star"ary (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ary
face="Times New Roman Star"ary (Sangl., Pav. C., Qutb), aru (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"ari, tukli ari 'humble-bee'face="Times New Roman Star"he|re|
face="Times New Roman Star"aryface="Times New Roman Star"ary, a:ry (Ё—“я)face="Times New Roman Star"a:r, tu"ktig a:r 'hornet'
face="Times New Roman Star"aru:face="Times New Roman Star"ha:ryface="Times New Roman Star"t@g@ld-ora 'humble-bee' ? (t@g@l 'shaggy')face="Times New Roman Star"yn|yrya
face="Times New Roman Star"ary, Todzh. hary
face="Times New Roman Star"a:ryface="Times New Roman Star"ara, tu"kti ara 'humble-bee'


face="Times New Roman Star"a:ry
face="Times New Roman Star"he|rre

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 25, EDT 196-197, TMN 2, 47, Ё—“я 1, 186-187, Ћексика 186, јшм. XV, 23, ‘едотов 2, 213-214. Turk. > Mong. ari (not vice versa, despite ўербак 1997, 100).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Arka-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"lasso, thick stringface="Times New Roman Star"лассо, толста€ веревка




face="Times New Roman Star"arkan 1


face="Times New Roman Star"arqa:n


















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 26, Ё—“я 1, 175-176. Turk. > WMong. arqala-, Kalm. arx@l- (KW 14).
face="Times New Roman Star"*arpaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"barleyface="Times New Roman Star"€чменьface="Times New Roman Star"arpa (OUygh.), abra (late OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"arpa (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpa (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"a(r)pa
face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arba
face="Times New Roman Star"arbaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"orba



face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"arfa (——я 292)face="Times New Roman Star"arpaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 198, VEWT 27, Ё—“я 1, 176-177, TMN 2, 24, Ћексика 460, ≈горов 27, ‘едотов 2, 286. Turk. > Hung. a/rpa, see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Argun ? *a:r/
face="Times New Roman Star"1 ermine 2 a k. of weaselface="Times New Roman Star"1 горностай 2 вид ласкиface="Times New Roman Star"as (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"as, az (MK) 1, arg|un (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"a(r)s, Osm. asface="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as (Sangl.) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"a(g|a)s, a:s 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jos 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"arys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"at| 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 216, Ё—“я 191, **AD ‘едотов 2 493.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to make magic, cast spells 2 to deceiveface="Times New Roman Star"1 колдовать, заклинать 2 обманыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ar- 2 (Orkh., OUygh.), arvys? 'magic' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ar- 1 (MK, KB), arva- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"arpag| 'magic' (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"arby- 1 (Sib.,  —““ 103)face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1 (Sangl., Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"avra- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a(r)ba- 1face="Times New Roman Star"arva- 1 (я∆” 16)
face="Times New Roman Star"arvax dial. 'evil spirit'face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1, arbys? 'magic'face="Times New Roman Star"arba-n- 'to scold'

face="Times New Roman Star"arba:- 1 (ѕек. I 139 'to praise for magic purposes')


face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"arba- 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 193, 199, VEWT 24, Ё—“я I 168-170. Turk. > MMong. arba- 'to put spells' (SH 8); Turk. arbys? > Mong. arbis 'knowledge' (Clark 1980, 41).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"netface="Times New Roman Star"сеть
face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|; ag|, av (Osmanli)face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"ag| (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"a:g| (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|face="Times New Roman Star"a:q (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (Sag.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|face="Times New Roman Star"ag| (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"u:face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"aw
face="Times New Roman Star"av, uvface="Times New Roman Star"aw
face="Times New Roman Star"awface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 7, 20, Ё—“я 1, 117-118, 152-153, Ћексика 418-419. On an|nyg| (Shor), ag|nyx| (Khak.) v. sub *a>n|u.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ediface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hostface="Times New Roman Star"хоз€инface="Times New Roman Star"edi (idi) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"id|i (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ije, ys, isface="Times New Roman Star"ija"face="Times New Roman Star"eje (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.), ije (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"a"ja" (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"iseface="Times New Roman Star"jija"face="Times New Roman Star"ejeface="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"e:

face="Times New Roman Star"ic?c?iface="Times New Roman Star"ic?c?iface="Times New Roman Star"e: ( < Oyr. or Khak.)
face="Times New Roman Star"e:face="Times New Roman Star"i>jeface="Times New Roman Star"ijeface="Times New Roman Star"i>ja"face="Times New Roman Star"ije
face="Times New Roman Star"ije, jeface="Times New Roman Star"ije
face="Times New Roman Star"jejeface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 237-241, TMN 2, 176, EDT 41, Ћексика 324-325, Stachowski 122. Some forms (Tur. ys, is, Yak. ic?c?i etc.) go back to a suffixed *ede-si; the Khak. and Shor forms should be explained as a haplology of the same form.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ep-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to blow 2 movement of air, breeze 3 energy, tempo 4 gusty (wind)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дуть, ве€ть 2 движение воздуха, ветерок 3 порыв, темп, энерги€ 4 порывистый (о ветре)


face="Times New Roman Star"ip- 1 (Seb.)
face="Times New Roman Star"a"pkin (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 2





face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 3face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 2face="Times New Roman Star"epkinli 4



face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 3

face="Times New Roman Star"Ћексика 42.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.su"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to become drunkface="Times New Roman Star"пь€неть, напиватьс€face="Times New Roman Star"esu"r- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"esu"r- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"esri-face="Times New Roman Star"isi>r-face="Times New Roman Star"esri- (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"a"si>r- (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"esre-face="Times New Roman Star"izi>r-face="Times New Roman Star"ezir-face="Times New Roman Star"ezir-
face="Times New Roman Star"u"z@r-face="Times New Roman Star"itir-face="Times New Roman Star"itirikte:- 'to rejoice, have a feast'face="Times New Roman Star"ezir-face="Times New Roman Star"e`siri-face="Times New Roman Star"esir-face="Times New Roman Star"esi>r-face="Times New Roman Star"esir-face="Times New Roman Star"it|i>r-face="Times New Roman Star"esir-
face="Times New Roman Star"esir-face="Times New Roman Star"esir-
face="Times New Roman Star"esir-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 251, VEWT 50, Ё—“я 1, 309-310, Stachowski 130.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ba:kanaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sheep skin 2 lamb 3 babyface="Times New Roman Star"1 овечь€ шкура 2 €гненок 3 ребенок

face="Times New Roman Star"bag|an 1, (dial.) bag|alak, bag|nak 1, bag|ana 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bag|ana 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"bag|ana 1 (Khor.)

face="Times New Roman Star"bag|ana 1face="Times New Roman Star"bag|ana 1








face="Times New Roman Star"bag|lan, bag|ylan 'lamb that has stopped suckling', bag|yldyr 'wild lamb, 1-year-old mountain goat'face="Times New Roman Star"bag|ana 2




face="Times New Roman Star"bag|lan 'a well-fed early lamb'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 55, Ћексика 390. The Kypchak form bag|lan 'lamb' has hardly anything to do with Tat., Kaz. baqlan 'cormorant' (despite TMN 2, 298, јникин 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAj-ra-m/k, bAj-gaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 feast 2 horse-race 3 a prize in horse-raceface="Times New Roman Star"1 праздник 2 скачки 3 приз за победу в скачках
face="Times New Roman Star"bad|ram (MK), bajram (MK Oghuz) 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"be|jre|m 1, be|jgi 2face="Times New Roman Star"bajram (Ѕор. Ѕад.) 1, bajg|a 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, pajga" (R) 3, bajraq (dial., Khorazm) 3face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, (dial.- Lobn.) bajg|a 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, bajraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"paj 1 (Sag.), pajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, pajg|a 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1





face="Times New Roman Star"majram 1, bajge 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ma"jram 1, ba"jge 2, 3, (dial.) bajraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, ba"jgi 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1, ba"jge 2, 3, bajraq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bajram 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 54, 56, Ё—“я 2, 32, 33-34 (erroneously under *bad|rak 'flag'), 35-36, TMN 2, 384-385. Here one should reconstruct *-j- (not *-d|-), dissimilated before -r- according to Mudrak's rule. Formally *baj-ra-m and *baj-ra-k are deverbatives from a hypothetical *baj-ra- 'to celebrate'; *baj-ga is a denominative with a usual East.-Kypch. suffix. Menges' (1933, 101) hypothesis of bajga < Russ. is quite unlikely (cf. the areal and the Chag. fixation). A rather popular theory of Iranian origin is also excluded: the only acceptable etymology of Pers. bajram is < Turkic (see also Ё—“я). Because of semantics, hardly connected with Mong. baj 'sign, goal, road sign'. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bajga/ (јникин 109).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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