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Altaic etymology :

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\data\alt\altet
Proto-Altaic: *ĺoŋgV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to accuse, blame
Russian meaning: обвинять, винить
Turkic: *joŋ
Mongolian: *doŋgud-
Tungus-Manchu: *loŋ-si-
Comments: KW 95. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lop`V
Meaning: nest (of rodents)
Russian meaning: гнездо (грызунов)
Mongolian: *nowkai
Tungus-Manchu: *lopi(gi)
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ĺóre (?)
Meaning: a k. of deer
Russian meaning: вид оленя
Mongolian: *ǯüre
Tungus-Manchu: *lor- (?)
Korean: *nòrằ
Japanese: *nǝrǝ ~ *nuarua
Comments: The root presents several problems: a) Mong. has ǯ- instead of an expected d-; b) the TM forms are few and rather controversial (it is not really clear whether the Manchu form is related to Evk.); c) the Jpn. form is attested late. There may also have been some confusion with the reflexes of *negre '(female) deer' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *lŭge ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bridle
Russian meaning: уздечка
Turkic: *jügen
Tungus-Manchu: *luksi
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lúke
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bow, bend
Russian meaning: наклоняться, гнуть
Turkic: *jükün-
Mongolian: *nugu-
Tungus-Manchu: *loka-
Japanese: *nǝ́kí ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: ОСНЯ 3, 64-65 (Turc-Mong). Cf. *làk`ù.
Proto-Altaic: *luko
Meaning: wild pig
Russian meaning: дикая свинья
Mongolian: *nogtu-
Tungus-Manchu: *luke- / *lukte (*lekte)
Korean: *nɨktai (?)
Comments: The Kor. match is glossed as "wild boar" by Ramstedt (in SKE), but as "jackal" or "Korean wolf" in modern dictionaries - thus it may be actually the same word as nɨktä < *l[ù]k`V̀ 'lynx'; but the Mong.-TM parallel is still valid. {Cf. PAA *li:k 'pig'}.
Proto-Altaic: *lùku ( ~ *ĺ-, -o-, -k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to take off (clothes)
Russian meaning: снимать (одежду)
Tungus-Manchu: *luK-
Japanese: *nùk-
Comments: Miller 1985b, 194. A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lúk`ì ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to break through
Russian meaning: прорывать, проходить через
Mongolian: *nüke-
Tungus-Manchu: *lokta-
Japanese: *núk-
Comments: ОСНЯ 2, 28-29, АПиПЯЯ 75.
Proto-Altaic: *l[ù]k`V̀ ( ~ -k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: lynx, wild cat
Russian meaning: рысь, дикая кошка
Mongolian: *nogu-ɣal
Tungus-Manchu: *luKV
Korean: *nɨk-
Japanese: *niàkua ( ~ *nàikua)
Comments: The Jpn. vocalism is aberrant; the diphthong may require a reconstruction like *lòjk`V. Cf. also notes to *luko.
Proto-Altaic: *lumV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of small wild animal
Russian meaning: вид мелкого дикого животного
Turkic: *jumra-
Mongolian: *lomun
Tungus-Manchu: *nenme- ( ~ *l-)
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lúŋa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fur animal
Russian meaning: вид пушного животного
Mongolian: *nagaj
Tungus-Manchu: *loŋ-sa
Korean: *nǝ̀ŋ'úrí
Japanese: *ná-i
Comments: See Лексика 165. Cf. *ĺeŋgV (in Kor. a partial contamination is possible).
Proto-Altaic: *lúŋu ( ~ *ĺ-, -o-, -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: morning or evening dawn
Russian meaning: утренняя или вечерняя заря
Tungus-Manchu: *luŋur
Korean: *nò'ɨ̀r
Japanese: *núN- / *núiN- / *núaN-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *lŭ̀rkV ( ~ *ĺ-, -i̯u-,-i̯o-,-o-)
Meaning: to burn; warm
Russian meaning: гореть, пылать; теплый
Tungus-Manchu: *lurgi-
Korean: *nòk- / *nuk-
Japanese: *nùkù-
Comments: Martin 245, АПиПЯЯ 278. An Eastern isogloss. Korean has a secondary verbal low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *ĺū̀ńi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: snow
Russian meaning: снег
Tungus-Manchu: *lūńe
Korean: *nūn
Comments: EAS 77, SKE 173, ОСНЯ 3, 34-35, Menges 1984, 281, АПиПЯЯ 19. A Tung.-Kor. isogloss. Depalatalization in Kor. is probably assimilative (*nūń > *nūn).
Proto-Altaic: *ma
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a negative particle
Russian meaning: отрицательная частица
Turkic: *-ma-
Tungus-Manchu: *-me
Korean: *mō-t
Japanese: *-ma-
Comments: ОСНЯ 2, 57. A monosyllabic root, but, unlike the 1st p. pron. or the accusative particle, it did not undergo denasalization in PA. This may be explained by the fact that it was in most cases already incorporated into the verbal form as a suffix. It is interesting to note Mong. *büi, *bu 'neg. particle' - which may be originally the same morpheme, but functioning as a separate word and thus subject to the rule *mV > *bV.
Proto-Altaic: *m[a]bči
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: worm, insect
Russian meaning: червь, насекомое
Mongolian: *meče
Tungus-Manchu: *ma[b]ši-
Japanese: *músí
Comments: In Turkic cf. *bȫnček 'insect' (Az. miček, Turkm. mȫǯek etc.) - if not, as usually thought, a contraction < *bȫgen-ček (see under *bi̯ūgi).
Proto-Altaic: *máč`à
Meaning: to fast, hunger
Russian meaning: поститься, голодать
Turkic: *bAča-
Mongolian: *mačag
Tungus-Manchu: *maču-
Japanese: *mátúr-
Comments: Mong. mačag cannot be < Turk., despite EDT 293, Clark 1980, 43; it is also difficult to suppose Man. mačixi (especially the verb maču-) < Mong. mačag. The root thus seems to be reconstructable for PA, with the meaning approx. "to fast, hunger with religious purposes".
Proto-Altaic: *máč`V̀
Meaning: target
Russian meaning: цель, мишень
Korean: *màč-
Japanese: *mátua
Comments: Martin 229; it is not quite clear whether PJ *mat- 'wait' belongs here as well (or rather to *mude 'finally' q. v.). A Kor.-Jpn. isogloss; cf. perhaps Mong. *möči 'edge' (if not = *möči 'limb').
Proto-Altaic: *maja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to miss, fail, bad luck
Russian meaning: не удаваться, неудача
Turkic: *bAńɨ-
Mongolian: *maɣu
Tungus-Manchu: *maja-
Comments: A Western isogloss. ОСНЯ 3, 50-51; Дыбо 13. PT *bańɨ- regularly < *majɨ- (with nasalization not lost completely, but shifted to the *-j-).
Proto-Altaic: *maji
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: protecting spirit
Russian meaning: дух-покровитель
Turkic: *baj ( ~ -ń)
Tungus-Manchu: *maji-n
Japanese: *mi
Comments: ОСНЯ 3, 51. An interesting common Altaic religious term (although within Turkic it is rather hard to distinguish from *bāj 'rich' < *bēǯu q. v.).
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