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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo"keface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a big snakeface="Times New Roman Star"большая змея
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ke (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 180, EDT 324. Clauson doubts MK's derivation of bo"ke 'warrior' from 'big snake' (MK quotes a folk-tale about the snake with seven heads called bo"ke, and says that the warriors are called by it); but external evidence rather supports Kashgari's point of view. If this is the case, MMong. bo"ko" 'warrior, wrestler' (whence Evk. buku etc., see Doerfer MT 235) must be a Turkic loanword (see EDT ibid.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*itelgu"
face="Times New Roman Star"a bird of preyface="Times New Roman Star"хищная птица

face="Times New Roman Star"o"tla"gu"

face="Times New Roman Star"ita"lgu"


face="Times New Roman Star"itelgi


















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 175. Turk. > Kalm. itl.g|@ (KW 211). [rather < Mong.]
face="Times New Roman Star"*byldur- (*buldyr-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a bird smaller than a grey partridge, quailface="Times New Roman Star"рыжая куропатка, степной рябчик

face="Times New Roman Star"byldyrz?|yn
face="Times New Roman Star"byldyrc?yn (Sangl., Houts., Bulgat)face="Times New Roman Star"bulduriq 'Steppenhuhn'

face="Times New Roman Star"byldyrc?yn (dial.)




face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|ldъw|rz?|an (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bylz?|yryt, byllyryt 'snipe'


face="Times New Roman Star"bulduruqface="Times New Roman Star"buldyryq




face="Times New Roman Star"buldyryq

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 309, TMN 2, 312, VEWT 73-74, ЭСТЯ 2, 305-306, Лексика 173. Turk. > Russ. Siber. buld'ur'uk (Аникин 140).
face="Times New Roman Star"*otgunface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a broad strap on the left side of the saddle to which the buckle of the girth is fastened and secured with its tongueface="Times New Roman Star"широкий ремень, к которому прикрепляется подпруга
face="Times New Roman Star"otg|un (utg|un) (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 47.
face="Times New Roman Star"*atanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a castrated camelface="Times New Roman Star"кастрированный верблюд
face="Times New Roman Star"atan (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"atan (IM)



face="Times New Roman Star"atan (dial.)






face="Times New Roman Star"adan
face="Times New Roman Star"atanface="Times New Roman Star"atanface="Times New Roman Star"atan



face="Times New Roman Star"atan

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 60, ЭСТЯ 1, 202-203. Turk. > WMong. atan 'castrated camel'. Cf. also Yak. at 'castrated', atta:- 'to castrate' - homonymous with at 'horse', which is probably a secondary merger (the two roots obviously are to be kept separate).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Arkunface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a cross-bred horseface="Times New Roman Star"лошадь смешанных кровей
face="Times New Roman Star"arqun (MK)



face="Times New Roman Star"a(r)g|un











face="Times New Roman Star"arg|yn








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 216, ЭСТЯ 1, 171. Cf. also *arga-mak 'stallion' ( > WMong. arg|amag|, see Щербак 1997, 162). The verb arg|y- 'to run swiftly (of a well-bred horse)' is attested in Kirgh., Kum. and Tuva (see ЭСТЯ 1, 172). Turk. > Bur. arxan `bastard; cross-bred horse'. See also Аб. 1, 66 (Osset. arg|onaq 'well-bred dog' < Turkic).
face="Times New Roman Star"*eg-du"face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a curved knifeface="Times New Roman Star"кривой ножface="Times New Roman Star"egdu" (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"egdu" (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"egdi (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"egdi



face="Times New Roman Star"avdъface="Times New Roman Star"ia"t


face="Times New Roman Star"ijdi








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 102, VEWT 37. The semantics must have been secondarily influenced by *eg- 'to bend, curve'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAt (?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a fabulous animal, unicornface="Times New Roman Star"сказочное животное, единорогface="Times New Roman Star"qat (OUygh.: Chin.-Uygh. Dict.)


face="Times New Roman Star"(Xwar.) qat (Oghuz-nama)























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 241, TMN 4, 393, EDT 593. Somewhat dubious: the word may represent a rendering of Sanskr. khad.ga 'rhinoceros' (through Tokharian?); cf. OUygh. ktki 'id.'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kul/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a hairless spot (on horse's skin)face="Times New Roman Star"проплешина (на шкуре лошади)

face="Times New Roman Star"kus?

























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 305.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"ru"-lgenface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of berryface="Times New Roman Star"вид ягоды


face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rlegen

face="Times New Roman Star"bo"lz?|u"(r)ga"n






face="Times New Roman Star"pew|rlew|xen



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ldu"rko"nface="Times New Roman Star"bu"ldirgenface="Times New Roman Star"bo"/u"ldirgenface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rd|o"ge|n





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, Лексика 139-140 (forms like Kaz. bu"ldirgen may reflect the same stem: *bu"ru"l-degen). Cf. also Mong. forms: bu"relgene 'калина', bo":ro"lgo"no" 'костяника' which may be of Turkic origin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*TAdgunface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of big riverface="Times New Roman Star"большая, непересыхающая сезонно река
face="Times New Roman Star"tad|g|un (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 453: Clauson suggests a reading tod|g|un (deriving the word from tod|- 'fill'), but there is no waw in the text.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ti-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of biting insectface="Times New Roman Star"вид кусающего насекомогоface="Times New Roman Star"ti-ler (OUygh.)



























face="Times New Roman Star"See EDT 501: the word is located in a list of harmful biting insects, between flies and ants.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Togface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of fishface="Times New Roman Star"вид рыбы


face="Times New Roman Star"tog|y 'sturgeon' (КСТТ)






face="Times New Roman Star"tog| 'perch'face="Times New Roman Star"tu:ly 'кускуч'
















face="Times New Roman Star"*gEc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of flowerface="Times New Roman Star"вид цветка








face="Times New Roman Star"gec?emz?|ek 'ластовень острый', gec?igec?i 'пастушья сумка'.



face="Times New Roman Star"kъc?kъ 'catkins, aglets, flower buds' ( > Mari kic?ke 'willow buds'?)



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"c?u"k 'catkins, aglets, flower buds'








face="Times New Roman Star"Федотов 1, 264. Not quite secure, since the root is (folk-etymologically?) contaminated either with gec?e 'goat' or with *gu":c?u"k 'puppy'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sysface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of grassface="Times New Roman Star"мордовник











face="Times New Roman Star"sys qomurg|aj, qomuraj (qomurg|aj 'pipe')















face="Times New Roman Star"Attested only in Oyrot, with possible external parallels.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jEkenface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of grass, reedface="Times New Roman Star"вид травы, тростникаface="Times New Roman Star"jigen (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jigen (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jege|n (dial.), z?|ike|nface="Times New Roman Star"jeka"n (R.), jiga"n (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"ja"ka"nface="Times New Roman Star"jeka"n

face="Times New Roman Star"jeken

face="Times New Roman Star"jeken, jekken, d/e:ken





face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ekenface="Times New Roman Star"z?ekenface="Times New Roman Star"jekenface="Times New Roman Star"jeka"nface="Times New Roman Star"zegen

face="Times New Roman Star"z?iken

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 913, VEWT 195, ЭСТЯ 4, 172-173. Turk. > Mong. z?|eken, z?|ege-su"n (KW 472, Щербак 1997, 123); Hung. gye/ke/ny (MNyTESz 1, 1125).
face="Times New Roman Star"*byn/anface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of grassface="Times New Roman Star"солодка, лебеда

face="Times New Roman Star"bojan, mejanface="Times New Roman Star"dial. myjaface="Times New Roman Star"bijan, CCum. bujanface="Times New Roman Star"mijaface="Times New Roman Star"buja
face="Times New Roman Star"bijanface="Times New Roman Star"bujan



face="Times New Roman Star"mъjan



face="Times New Roman Star"myjaface="Times New Roman Star"myjaface="Times New Roman Star"myja



face="Times New Roman Star"bojan
face="Times New Roman Star"mijaface="Times New Roman Star"Егоров 131. Turk. > Kalm. buja: 'лебеда', Russ. Siber. bojalyc? 'солянка древовидная' Аникин 125.
face="Times New Roman Star"*imiti ( ? *ymyt)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of hawthornface="Times New Roman Star"вид боярышникаface="Times New Roman Star"imiti (Rach.) (can also be read as ymyt)



























face="Times New Roman Star"ДТС 209. Attested only in Old Uyghur, but having possible parallels in Tung. and Jpn. Turk. > Mong. imidi (the word has been pointed out by Stefan Georg, who found it out in Позднеев: Учебник тибетской медицины (1908 г.), 339); cf. also WMong. imdij, Khalkha imdij 'боярышник полуперистый' (БАМРС). The Turkic word is, of course, not from Mongolian (which certainly has a borrowed shape with -d- in front of -i).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a k. of lattice or cross-beamface="Times New Roman Star"вид решетки или балки

face="Times New Roman Star"sarak 'carved frieze, torus'










face="Times New Roman Star"surban dial. 'window blind'face="Times New Roman Star"argy 'cross-bar for drying things'


face="Times New Roman Star"sarap 'stringer beam', sary 'wooden frame of a frame-house'








face="Times New Roman Star"Cf. also Tuva (Todzh., Вайнштейн) a'rga 'lattice for drying wild onions' (perhaps < Yak.).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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