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\data\ie\germet
Proto-Germanic: *sula-n, *sulwō, *sulwōn- vb., *saul(i)=, *saulian- vb.
Meaning: spot, mud
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *bi-sauljan wk. `spot', *bi-saulnan wk. `become spotted, unclean'
Norwegian: saula, söyla `Schlamm, Pfütze', söyla `beflecken'
Swedish: dial. saula `beschmutzen'
Old English: sol `dirty', sol, -es n., solu, -we/-e f. `miry, miry place'; solian (-ode) `make or bekome foul', { sylian }
East Frisian: Fris soal
Middle Dutch: sol m. `poel, vuil, drek', sole `geul, kuil'
Dutch: sol m. `met water en modder gevulde kuil in het morenelandschap'
Middle Low German: sȫle `Schlamm, Schmutz, Dreck'
Old High German: gi-sol (um 800), sol (9.Jh.) `Kotlache'; bi-sullen (12.Jh.)
Middle High German: sol, söl st. m. 'kotlache'; soln, suln wk. 'mit kot beschmutzen, im köte wälzen'
German: Suhle; suhlen
Proto-Germanic: *sulxi-z
Meaning: plough
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: sulh (suluh, sul), -e/-es, dat. sylg (sylh, syl), pl. sylh (syll) f. (/m. ?) `plough; the quantity of land which could be cultivated with one plough; sunk road (?), gully (?)'
Proto-Germanic: *sumara-n, -z
Meaning: summer
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: sumar n., sumar-r m.
Swedish: sommar
Old English: sumor (-er, -ur), -es m. `summer'
English: summer
Old Frisian: sumur
Old Saxon: sumar
Middle Dutch: sōmer m.
Dutch: zomer m.
Middle Low German: sōmer, sommer
Old High German: sumar (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: sumer st. m. 'sommer'
German: Sommer
Proto-Germanic: *sundr=
Meaning: alone, apart
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: sundrō adv. `alone, apart'
Old Norse: sundr `entzwei, gesondert'
Norwegian: sond(er)
Swedish: sönder
Danish: sönder
Old English: sundor `für sich, besonders'
English: asunder
Old Frisian: sunder `zonder'
Old Saxon: sundir `ohne', sundar `afzonderlijk, in het bijzonder'
Middle Dutch: sonder `zonder, bebehalve'
Dutch: zonder
Old Franconian: sundir, sunder `zonder'
Middle Low German: sunder
Old High German: suntar (9.Jh.), {suntor} `ausser, ohne', suntar 'abseits, gesondert, für sich' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: sunder 'ausser, ohne', sunder 'auf eine gesondere Weise, abseits, im einzelnen, sür sich, ausschliesslich, ausgezeichnet, sehr'
German: sonder, sondern, besonder
Proto-Germanic: *sunú-z, *suní-z, *sōnV-z; *sōni-z; *suxtriēn
Meaning: son
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: sunu-s m. (u) `son'
Old Norse: sun-r, son-r
Swedish: son
Old English: { sun }; suhterga (suhtriga, suhtria), -an m. `brother's son, nephew'
English: son
Old Frisian: sunu, sune, sun, son
Old Saxon: sunu
Middle Dutch: sōne, zuene
Dutch: zoon m., dial. zeun
Middle Low German: sȫne
Old High German: sunu (8.Jh.), sun (i-St., 8.Jh.)
Middle High German: sun, suon, md. son, sūn st. m. 'sohn; das männl. junge der tiere'
German: Sohn m.
Proto-Germanic: *surf-il-ōn-, *surp=il-ōn- vb.
Meaning: gulp
IE etymology: IE etymology
Middle High German: sürfeln, sürpfeln wk. 'schlürfen'
Proto-Germanic: *sū́f=, *súf=, *sū́fla-n, *súfla-n; *sūpan-, *saup=, *sup=, *supōn- vb.
Meaning: gulp; soupe
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: supōn wk. `salt, season'
Old Norse: saup `Buttermilch', sopi `Schluck', sūpa `schlürfen, trinken', sūp-r m.; sufl `toespijs'
Swedish: supa `schlürfen, trinken'
Old English: { sūf `Brühe, Suppe', sufel }; { soppe }, sopp `sop', soppian `to sop', sūpan (sēap, supon; sopen) `to sup, to take fluid into the mouth'
English: to sop, sup `schlürfen'; dial. sop (sbst.)
Old Saxon: suval `pulmentum'
Middle Dutch: soppe f., sop n. `sop, saus, geweekt brood', soppen `Brot in Flussigkeit eintrunken', sūpen `schlürfen, trinken'; sūvel n. `zuivel'
Dutch: sop n., vlam. zoppe f., zop n.; soppen, vlam. zoppen `Brot in Flussigkeit eintrunken', zuipen `schlürfen, trinken'; zuivel m., n.
Middle Low German: soppe, suppe f. `eingeweichtes Brot, Brühe, Brei, Sosse', sūpe f. `soep', sūpen `schlürfen, trinken'; sūvel n. `zuivel'
Old High German: souf `Brühe' (9.Jh.), gi-sopho `gebrühter Getreideabfall' (um 800), suphila `schlürfbares brühchen, Süppchen' (9.Jh.), soffōn `würzen'; sūfan (9.Jh.) `schlürfen, trinken', suvil `pisumen', sufili n., sufila f. `sorbitiuncula'
Middle High German: suppe, soppe wk./st. f. 'brühe, suppe; morgensuppe, frühstück'; mahlzeit überh.' { sopfe `gesopt brood' }, suf, sof (-ff-) st. m. 'schuff, schlurf'; sūf st. m. 'trank'; supfen wk. 'schlürfen', sūfen, soufen st. tr. 'schlürfen, trinken', intr. versinken, untergehen', sūfe f.'suppe'
German: [ Suppe (< LG) ]; saufen
Proto-Germanic: *sūlō, *sūlōn, *sūliō, *suljō, *swiljō, *sauli-z, *swalō
Meaning: beam, post
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: saul-s f. (i) `Säule', *ga-sauljan wk. `found'
Old Norse: sūl f. `Säule', sūla f. `Säule; Kloben für Schweine; Bassangans', süll, svill f. `Grundbalken, Schwelle'; pl. svalar f. `Überdeckter, Hausumgang'
Norwegian: sul, svill, dial. süll; sval, svale
Swedish: svill, süll; dial. sul; svale
Danish: süld; svale
Old English: sǖl, -e `pillar, column', syll `ploughs'
Old Frisian: sēle
Old Saxon: Irmin-sūl
Middle Dutch: sūle, suul f., suul m.; { sulle }
Dutch: zuil f.
Old Franconian: sūl
Middle Low German: sūle `Säule'; sül, sülle, sille `Grundbalken, Türschwelle'
Old High German: sūl, pl. sūli (8.Jh.) `Säule, Pfosten, Pfeiler, Pfahl, Pranger'
Middle High German: sūl st. f. (/soul, sūel, siule, sūwel) 'säule, pfosten, pfeiler; bildsäule; feuer-, wolkensäule; heersäule; aufgerichteter pfahl, bes. schandsäule, pranger'
German: Säule
Proto-Germanic: *sūmian-
Meaning: linger, miss
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Frisian: ūr-sūmia `verzuimen, ongebruik laten voorbijgan'
Middle Dutch: versūmen
Dutch: verzuimen
Middle Low German: {vorsūmen}; sǖmen
Old High German: firsūmen (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: sūmen wk. 'aufhalten, hinhalten, verzögern, versäumen, warten lassen, jmdn. auf-, abhalten, hindern', refl. 'sich aufhalten, verspäten', versūmen 'ungetan, unbeachtet lassen, ab-, auf-, zurückhalten, irren, vernachlässigen, im Stich lassen, sich verspäten'; sūmesal, -seli, -sele 'saumseligkeit'
German: säumen, versäumen, saumselig, Saumsal (bin ins 17.Jh.)
Proto-Germanic: *sūra-; *sūriōn/*sūrīn
Meaning: sour, sour milk
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: sūr-r `sauer, bitter'; sǖra f. `saure Milch'
Norwegian: sur adj.; süra
Swedish: sur adj.; süra
Danish: sur adj.; süre
Old English: sūr `sour'; { sǖring `saure Milch' }
English: sour
Old Saxon: sūr-ōgi `triefäugig'
Middle Dutch: suur
Dutch: zuur
Middle Low German: sūr
Old High German: sūr (8.Jh.) `sauer'; sūrī `Sauerkeit'
Middle High German: sūr, sūwer 'sauer, herbe, scharf, bitter', st. n. 'bitterkeit; übel'; siure, siurde st. f. 'säure, schärfe, bitterkeit; sauerteig'
German: sauer
Proto-Germanic: *sū-z; *sugṓ, -iṓ
Meaning: sow (pig)
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: sǖ-r, pl. sǖr f. `Sau'
Norwegian: su; sugga
Swedish: so; sugga
Danish: so
Old English: sū, -e f. `sow'; sugu, -e f.
English: sow
Old Saxon: sū; suga `Sau'
Middle Dutch: soghe, seughe, sueghe; soch
Dutch: zeug f., dial. zog
Middle Low German:
Old High German: sū (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: sū (gen. siuwe, sū, pl. siuwe, siu) st. f. 'sau'
German: Sau f. { dial. Suge }
Proto-Germanic: *swaina-z
Meaning: fellow
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: svein-n m. `Knabe, Bursche; Diener'
Norwegian: svein
Swedish: sven
Danish: svend
Old English: swān, -es m. `herd, sdwineherd; man, warrior'
Old Saxon: swēn `Schweinehirt'
Proto-Germanic: *swaita-z, -n, *swaitēn; *switjan- vb.
Meaning: sweat
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: sveiti m. `Schweiss, Blut'
Norwegian: sveite
Swedish: svet
Danish: sved
Old English: swāt, -es n.? `sweat, perspiration; labour, toil'
English: sweet
Old Frisian: swēt
Old Saxon: swēt
Middle Dutch: sweet n., m.
Dutch: zweet n.
Old High German: sweiʒ m. (9.Jh.); swizzen (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: sweiʒ st. m. 'schweiss; blut'; switzen wk. 'schwitzen'
German: Schweiss m.; schwitzen
Proto-Germanic: *swalō(n); *swalja-n, -z, *swaljō(n); *swiliō, *suliō, -a-
Meaning: beam, threshold
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: pl. svalar f., NIsl svoli `Holzklotz, nicht zugehauener Baumstumpf'; svill, süll f. `Grundbalken'
Old Swedish: swali `um den Oberstock des Hauses herumführender Balken (tabulatum)'
Swedish: süll
Old English: { syll, sylle f. }
English: sill
Middle Dutch: sulle, sille f.
Middle Low German: sul m., sülle m., f.
Old High German: swelli n. `Türschwelle, Fussgestell, Sockel' (9.Jh.), swella f. (13.Jh.)
Middle High German: swɛlle st./wk. f., n. 'balken zum hemmen, schwellen des wassers; balken überh., bes. grundbalken, schwelle'
German: Schwelle f.
Proto-Germanic: *swalwōn
Meaning: swallow (bird)
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: svala f. `Schwalbe'
Swedish: svala, dial. solva (< *svɔlva)
Danish: svale
Old English: swealwe (swealewe), -an f. `swallow'
English: swallow
Old Saxon: swala
Middle Dutch: swaluwe, swalewe
Dutch: zwaluw f.
Middle Low German: swāle
Old High German: swal(a)wa (9. Jh.),
Middle High German: swalwe, swalbe, swal(e) wk./st. f. 'schwalbe'
German: Schwalbe f.
Proto-Germanic: *swamma-z, *swampu-z, *sumpu-z
Meaning: sponge, tree-fungus
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: swamm-s m.? (a) `sponge'
Old Norse: svɔpp-r `Ball', sopp-r `Ball'
Norwegian: sopp `Pilz'
Swedish: svamp, dial. sopp `Pilz'
Old Danish: svamp
Old English: { swamm m. }
English: swamp `Sumpf'
Middle Dutch: swam, swamme m. `spons, paddestoel'; somp, tsomp, sump, Kil. sompe
Dutch: zwam f.; zump f., m. `moeras'; westnl. somp f. `poel, drassige plek'
Middle Low German: swamp, gen. -pes `Schwamm, Pilz'; swam, gen. -mmes `id.'; sump; sumpt
Old High German: swamb m. `Schwamm, Pilz' (12.Jh.); swammo, swambo (12.Jh.) `id.'; swam, gen. -mmes `Schwamm; Pilz' (8.Jh.); sunft (9.Jh.) `Sumpf'
Middle High German: sumpf, sunpf st. m. 'Sumpf'; swam (-mm-), swamp (-b-) st. m., swamme wk. m. 'schwamm, pilz'
German: Sumpf m.; Schwamm m.
Proto-Germanic: *swangra-
Meaning: heavy, slow
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: swangor `heavy (in the movement of the body or mind), slow, slothful, sluggish, indolent'
Dutch: zwanger
Middle Low German: swanger
Old High German: swangar `schwanger (von Menschen und Tieren)' (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: swanger 'schwanger; schwankend'
German: schwanger
Proto-Germanic: *swaran-, *swarjan-, *swarōn vb.; *swar=, *swōr=
Meaning: swear
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: swaran st. `swear'
Old Norse: sverja st. `schwören'; sȫri, svȫri n. `Schwur'; svara wk. `antworten, verteidigen'; svar n. `Antwort; Verteidigung'
Norwegian: sverja vb.; svar; svara vb.
Old Swedish: epsöre `Schwur'; svara vb.
Swedish: svärja vb.; svar
Danish: sverge vb.; svar; svare vb.
Old English: swerian `schwören', andswaru `Antwort'
English: swear, answer
Old Frisian: swera st.
Old Saxon: swerian `schwören'; andswōr `Antwort, Verantwortung'
Middle Dutch: swēren st. `zweren, vloeken'
Dutch: zweren `een eed afleggen'
Middle Low German: swerēn
Old High German: swer(i)en, swerren st. [j-Präs.] (8.Jh.) `schwören'; meinswōrō 'Meineid? wer einen Meineid schwört?' (10.Jh.)
Middle High German: swërn st. 'schwören'; swuor st. m. `Eid, Schwur, gotteslästerliche Rede, Fluch'
German: schwören, Schwur m.
Proto-Germanic: *swardu-z
Meaning: thick skin
Old Norse: svɔrδ-r `Schwarte, Kopfhaut, Grasdecke, Grasnarbe'
Old English: sweard f. `(Schweins)haut'
Middle English: sward `Rasen'
English: sward
Old Frisian: swarde, sward `hoofhuid'
East Frisian: Fris swaerd, sward `zwoord'
Middle Dutch: swaerde f. `behaarte Haut, mit Rasen bedeckter Boden'
Dutch: zwoord, zwoerd n. `(Schweins)haut', dial. zwaert, wvlam. zweerd `id.'
Middle Low German: swārde, swārte `behaarte Haut, mit Rasen bedeckter Boden', grȫnswārte 'Grassdecke'
Middle High German: swart(e) wk./st. f. `behaarte menschliche (Kopf)haut, behaarte od. gefiederte Tierhaut, Speckrinde'
German: Schwarte f.
Proto-Germanic: *swarrōn, *swirrVn- vb., *surrōn, *surm= etc.
Meaning: twitter, chatter
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: svarra wk. `brausen, sausen (poet.)'; svarm-r m. `Unruhe, Lärm'; svarva
Norwegian: sverra `wirbeln; kreisen', dial. surla `leise singen'; dial. svarm, sverm `Schwarm, Getümmel'
Swedish: sorla `rieseln, murmeln'; surra `leise eingen'; svärm `Schwarm'
Danish: surre `leise singen'; svärm `Schwarm'
Old English: swearm
Old Saxon: swarm
Middle Dutch: swarm, swerm
Dutch: { swarm }
Middle Low German: swirren `herumschwärmen', surren `surren'; swarm, { swerm }
Old High German: swar(a)m 'Bieneschwarm' (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: swarm st. m. 'bienenschwarm'; EaHG surm `Gesumse, Getöse' (15.Jh.)
German: schwirren; Schwarm m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-eastfris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-mhg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-ofris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-osax,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-mdutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-mengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-eastfris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,
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