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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gi̯oje ?
Meaning: to butt, horn
Russian meaning: бодать, рог
Tungus-Manchu: *gujā-
Comments: Basically a TM root, but cf. Yak. kej- 'to butt'. Jpn. *k(ù)i 'fang' may belong here, too - but see under *k`i̯ū̀ge). On the whole, rather dubious as a common Altaic etymon.
Proto-Altaic: *g[i̯o]jk`u
Meaning: bird of prey
Russian meaning: хищная птица
Turkic: *göjke
Tungus-Manchu: *giax(ü-n)
Comments: Дыбо 9, Лексика 170. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.; seems reliable, but the front vowel in Turk. is unclear.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯òjńu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dawn, daylight
Russian meaning: рассвет, дневной свет
Turkic: *gün(eĺ) / *guńaĺ
Mongolian: *gegeɣe < *geɣeɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *giańam
Korean: *kúi
Japanese: *ka(i)
Comments: Лексика 78, Doerfer MT 143. Cf. also Mong. geji- 'to dawn' (KW 137), proving that *geɣe- < *geje-. The Korean form points to a cluster with *-j-, therefore a reconstruction *gi̯òjnu (with subsequent assimilative palatalization -jn- > -jń-) is perhaps more plausible; cf. also the variation *n/*ń in PT. The Jpn. reflex is somewhat problematic: loss of final resonant here may be explained by a standard development before a velar suffix (*ka < *gi̯òjn(u)-gV, cf. Mong. *gege-ɣe, Man. geŋ-ǵe); but one would rather expect a PJ form like *ku(i). The irregular vowel may be due to contraction, cf. a similar case in PJ *ká 'mosquito' < PA *kúńe.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ŏ̀[k]ó
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, send
Russian meaning: бежать, гнать, посылать
Turkic: *Kog-
Mongolian: *güji-
Tungus-Manchu: *gik-
Japanese: *kàká-
Comments: The medial consonant behaves irregularly: the Turk. and Mong. forms point to an intermediate *gi̯ogo, probably a result of assimilation < *gi̯oko.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ola ( ~ -ĺ-, *gi̯alo)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to burn, fire
Russian meaning: жечь, огонь
Mongolian: *gal
Tungus-Manchu: *gul-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 294. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss. Poppe 24, 75 compares the TM stem with Mong. ɣolu-mta 'hearth', but cf. rather *gi̯ū̀ĺo.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯òlo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be unhappy, endure
Russian meaning: быть несчастным, терпеть
Turkic: *Kol-
Mongolian: *golu-
Tungus-Manchu: *gil-
Japanese: *kǝ̀rápá- (~-uo-)
Comments: KW 150.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯óra
Meaning: a k. of reed
Russian meaning: вид тростника
Turkic: *KAr(a)gu
Tungus-Manchu: *gurbi
Japanese: *kántúrá
Comments: The Turk.-Manchu match is semantically straightforward; the Jpn. match is phonetically plausible, but less certain semantically.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯óro ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut, carve, shear
Russian meaning: резать; измельчать, ломать
Mongolian: *gur-
Tungus-Manchu: *giri-
Japanese: *kár-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288, Miller-Street 1975, 108ff (with a somewhat different distribution of roots). MKor. kằr-hằi- < *kǝ̀r-hằi- through assimilation (?). The root tends to contaminate with a number of similar roots: see *k`ĭ̀rka, *k`ĭ̀régV, *kìro.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ose ( ~ -i, *gi̯aso)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: stick, pole
Russian meaning: палка, шест
Mongolian: *gesi-ɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *gusa
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ṓĺV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: edge; eyebrow
Russian meaning: край; бровь
Turkic: *K(i)āĺ
Tungus-Manchu: *gula
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss, with very similar semantic developments. Лексика 212. {Cf. WMo ɣuldaŋ, ɣulduŋ 'arch (as of a bridge or gate)'}.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ṓp`e
Meaning: to swell, form blisters
Russian meaning: пухнуть, нарывать
Turkic: *Kāp-
Mongolian: *göb- / *güb-
Korean: *kòpó-m-
Japanese: *kǝp(u)i ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: Cf. *kŏp`é, *k`àpe.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ṑŕe ( ~ *gi̯ā̀ŕu)
Meaning: skin disease
Russian meaning: кожная болезнь
Turkic: *KEŕi-
Tungus-Manchu: *gōr-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ube
Meaning: to hit, pound
Russian meaning: бить, стучать
Turkic: *Küb-
Tungus-Manchu: *güb-
Japanese: *kuwa-
Comments: EAS 148, Poppe 25, Doerfer MT 73. Cf. *gṓp`i.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ŭldo
Meaning: to stretch
Russian meaning: вытягивать
Turkic: *Kula-
Mongolian: *gulda-
Tungus-Manchu: *gülde-
Comments: ТМС 1, 150 (Mong.-Tung.). A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *g[i̯ú]ĺe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to strain liquid
Russian meaning: процеживать
Turkic: *Köĺ-er-
Tungus-Manchu: *gile-
Korean: *kǝ̀rɨ̀-
Japanese: *kǝ́s- ( ~ -ua-)
Comments: Martin 232, JOAL 119 (Kor.-Jpn.). Reflexes outside the Eastern area are scarce, but still the comparison seems probable, despite some phonetic problems (in TM *-ü- would be expected).
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯uli
Meaning: male deer
Russian meaning: самец оленя
Turkic: *Külmüŕ
Tungus-Manchu: *gil-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ūbe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to smoke, roast
Russian meaning: дымить(ся), жарить
Turkic: *gübeč
Tungus-Manchu: *gǖb-
Korean: *kūb-
Japanese: *káwǝ́r-
Comments: One of several similar roots (cf. *ki̯ájo, *ki̯àjú) tending to contaminate, which may explain some irregularities (notably, tone and irregular -a- in Jpn.).
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ū̀la
Meaning: thin, short
Russian meaning: тонкий, короткий
Turkic: *Kɨl-
Mongolian: *gulbi-
Tungus-Manchu: *gōl-
Japanese: *kàrú-
Comments: A common derivative *gi̯ū̀la-bV- is reflected in Turkic, Mongolian and TM.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ū̀ĺo ( ~ -e)
Meaning: to smoke, fume
Russian meaning: коптить, дымить(ся)
Mongolian: *golu-mta
Tungus-Manchu: *gǖl-
Korean: *kǝr-
Japanese: *kùsù-(m)p-
Comments: Cf. *gi̯ola.
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ū̀p`a ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to extinguish
Russian meaning: гаснуть, гасить
Turkic: *Kɨp-
Tungus-Manchu: *gūp-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss. Cf. *gep`V.
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