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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sàrpa ( ~ -p`-)
Meaning: weak, exhausted
Russian meaning: слабый, истощенный
Turkic: *sarp
Mongolian: *sarba-ɣa
Japanese: *sàmpù-
Comments: Some evidence from Mong. (Bur. harig) seems to indicate that the root may be just *sara, with the old derivative *sar(a)-p`V reflected in most languages.
Proto-Altaic: *sàrp`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of tool
Russian meaning: вид инструмента
Turkic: *sa(r)pan
Mongolian: *sorbi
Tungus-Manchu: *sarpukī
Korean: *sárp
Japanese: *sàpí
Comments: Martin 242, АПиПЯЯ 73, Doerfer MT 82. The root must have denoted a k. of stick used in agriculture, most probably digging stick or hoe, with a later transition to "plough", and in TM, exotically, to "eating stick" or "chopsticks". Mong. sabqa, because of the absent -r-, is most probably < Manchu, whereas the original root is preserved as *sorbi 'stick, staff' (although the -o-vowel here is a bit strange - *sarb- would be expected; perhaps we are actually dealing with a suffixed form like *sorbuji, with a secondary labialization < *sarbuji).
Proto-Altaic: *sarp`e
Meaning: colt, foal
Russian meaning: жеребенок
Turkic: *sɨp
Mongolian: *sarbaɣa
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sarp`i (~-e)
Meaning: a k. of needle
Russian meaning: вид иглы
Turkic: *sạp-
Tungus-Manchu: *sarpu-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *saru
Meaning: to be worn out, torn
Russian meaning: изнашиваться, раздираться
Turkic: *saran
Mongolian: *sar-ni-
Japanese: *sutar-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 7.
Proto-Altaic: *sàru ( ~ -e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a bird of prey
Russian meaning: вид хищной птицы
Turkic: *sar(ɨ)
Mongolian: *sar
Korean: *súrí
Comments: KW 313, VEWT 402, ТМС 2,64 (Evk. sar < Mong.), KW 313. Cf. also Jurch. siel ( < *siar-) 'hawk'.
Proto-Altaic: *sarumV ( ~ z-, -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: eyelash, eyebrow
Russian meaning: ресница, бровь
Mongolian: *sormu-
Tungus-Manchu: *sarimi-
Korean: *sǝ̀m
Comments: KW 332, Rozycki 186.
Proto-Altaic: *sarV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: song, feast
Russian meaning: песня, праздник
Turkic: *sarɨn
Tungus-Manchu: *sari
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sàǯV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to slander, condemn
Russian meaning: клеветать, порицать
Turkic: *saj-
Mongolian: *seǯig
Tungus-Manchu: *saǯī-
Japanese: *sài-r- ( ~ *sià-r-)
Comments: Mong. is usually regarded as < Turk. *seŕik, see *sā́ŕi (see VEWT 413, Clark 1980, 40; cf. also WMong. sesig id.).
Proto-Altaic: *sāba
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sign
Russian meaning: знак
Turkic: *sāb-
Mongolian: *saɣam
Tungus-Manchu: *sab(i)-
Japanese: *sàmpàk-
Comments: Japanese has an irregular low tone.
Proto-Altaic: *sā̀č`i
Meaning: wise, careful
Russian meaning: мудрый, осторожный
Turkic: *sEč-
Mongolian: *seče-n
Tungus-Manchu: *sāče-
Japanese: *sita-ta-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 76 (with a wrong inclusion of Jpn. *sátǝ́-, see *sṓra).
Proto-Altaic: *sā́ki
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to jump, shake
Russian meaning: прыгать, трястись
Turkic: *sēk-
Mongolian: *sege-
Tungus-Manchu: *saka-
Comments: KW 321. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sāmo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shape, appearance
Russian meaning: форма, вид
Turkic: *som
Tungus-Manchu: *sāma
Japanese: *sámà
Comments: The comparison seems probable, despite tonal incongruence between TM and Jpn. Ramstedt (SKE 222) compares Manchu forms with Kor. sam 'a speck or mote in the eye' (that may rather belong to *sḗmi q. v.).
Proto-Altaic: *sā́ŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to know; beware, feel
Russian meaning: знать;чувствовать, замечать
Turkic: *sEŕ- (~-ē-)
Mongolian: *seri-
Tungus-Manchu: *sā-
Korean: *sari-
Japanese: *sír-
Comments: EAS 71, KW 325, Poppe 29, 82 (Turc-Mong.), Murayama 1962, 111, 1978, 277-278, Miller 1981, 852, ОСНЯ 2, 107-108, Ozawa 228-229, АПиПЯЯ 74, 91, 276, Дыбо 14, Martin 234. TM preserves length in a monosyllabic root after loss of the resonant. Mong. cannot be explained as a loanword, despite Щербак 1997, 144.
Proto-Altaic: *sā́ŕo(-gV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of big fish
Russian meaning: вид крупной рыбы
Turkic: *sāŕV-gan
Mongolian: *siröge
Tungus-Manchu: *sarga-
Comments: Лексика 179, Miller 2000, 61-62. A Western isogloss. Cf. also Kor. salgi 'Amur grayling', perhaps borrowed from TM.
Proto-Altaic: *sā̀rV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be rare, thinned out
Russian meaning: быть редким, прореженным
Turkic: *sAr-
Mongolian: *sar-
Tungus-Manchu: *sār-
Comments: A Western isogloss. It is interesting to note the Turkm. form sarGan, which may reflect an old derivative *sār-k`V 'maw, paunch and its products' (reflecting the role played by the maw, ventriculus in the filtering and fermenting process) : cf. PT *sarkɨńuk 'maw, paunch' (EDT 849-850, ЭСТЯ 7), WMong. sarkinaɣ 'ventriculus, second stomach' (L 676; possibly < Turkic); Evk. sargākte 'upper coverage of the stomach'. See also notes to *sark`V.
Proto-Altaic: *sebe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to love, have fun
Russian meaning: любить, веселиться
Turkic: *seb-
Mongolian: *sebki-
Tungus-Manchu: *sebǯe-
Korean: *sipɨ-
Japanese: *sua(m)pa-p-
Comments: EAS 71, Doerfer MT 240, Дыбо 14. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 3, 316) doubts, the root is common Altaic. The Jpn. vowel is quite irregular: perhaps in Jpn. and Kor. we should presuppose a suffixed form *sebV-p- ( > Kor. sipɨ-, PJ *sua-p-, with further suffixation *sua-p-ap-). Cf. also WMong. (L 653) sabla-ldu- 'to show favour, be gracious'.
Proto-Altaic: *sebV(nV) ( ~ z-)
Meaning: strange, supernatural
Russian meaning: странный, сверхъестественный
Mongolian: *sebe-ɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *seben
Korean: *sòn ( < *sVbVn)
Comments: Лексика 266.
Proto-Altaic: *sèdá ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to think, determine
Russian meaning: думать, решать
Mongolian: *sede-, *sed-ki-
Japanese: *sàntàmà-
Comments: A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *sedurk`V ( ~ z-)
Meaning: nose bone
Russian meaning: кость носа
Mongolian: *sadurkaj
Tungus-Manchu: *serge-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, with a typical loss of *-d- before *-r- in TM.
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