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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ese
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not
Araban: ez
Bizkaian: ez, (arc, Bermeo, Gernika, Mundaka, Plentzia) ze
Gipuzkoan: ez
High Navarrese: ez
Low Navarrese: ez
Salazarese: ez
Lapurdian: ez
Baztanese: ez
Aezkoan: ez
Zuberoan: ez
Roncalese: ez
Comments: In archaic B ze was used when followed by subjunctive or imperative verb forms. In Azkue’s time (~ 1900) this usage of ze was still current in Bermeo, Gernika, Mundaka, and Plentzia. Mitxelena proposed *eze (our *ese), Trask *eza ~ *eze, with the variants ze ~ ez arising from different accentuations of phrases.

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