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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *č̣Hĕpɨ̆ (/-b-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: slime, clay; to plaster
Proto-Nakh: *č(ʕ)apu
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *č̣aba (~-o-,-o)
Proto-Lezghian: *č̣äIp:
Proto-West Caucasian: *č́Vpa
Notes: Despite the uncertainty in reconstructing *-p- or *-b- (not unusual in root structures with two stops), the root seems reliable. In PN and PWC there occurred an assimilations: *č < *č̣ (under the influence of the subsequent labial). Otherwise the correspondences are regular.

    The root is also spread in some other Daghestan languages as a loan from Avar (Darg. č̣aIbar 'floor') or Andian languages (Gunz. č̣abar 'clay').


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