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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇ĕɦlV ( ~ -ɫ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter
Proto-Nakh: *q̇aħe-n
Proto-Tsezian: *-ɨ̃q̇V-
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇u-d-q̇u-
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇äl
Proto-Khinalug: q̇ä
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇́Ia / *q̇́Iaq̇́IV
Notes: A widely spread common NC root. The semantic correlation "bitter":"sweet" is quite common (cf. the various meanings of *sal- and its derivates in Indo-European), thus the WC-EC comparison seems quite satisfactory. Note the frequent appearance of reduplication in this root (in PD, PL, PWC); we can probably reconstruct a reduplicated variant *q̇ĕq̇ĕɦlV already for PNC.

    In PTs the stem obtained prefixed class markers (*-Vq̇VlV) with further standard adjectival development > *-Vq̇lV > *-Vlq̇V > PTs *-ɨ̃q̇V (nasalisation is a normal reflex of medial resonants).


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