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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kara-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to guard, protect 2 to watch
Russian meaning: 1 беречь, защищать 2 наблюдать
Evenki: karama-, karma- 1, kara-m-na- 'to envy'
Even: qarɣụs- 1 (Arm.), qarqị- 'to wait'
Spoken Manchu: qarmǝ- (797) 1
Literary Manchu: qarma- 1 (perhaps also χarša-, ТМС 1, 380)
Ulcha: qarGa-čụ- 2
Orok: qarGa- 2
Nanai: qarGa-čị- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 381-382. The Evk. form kar(a)ma- is cited from Lee 1958 (quoting Shirokogoroff 1944 which was unavailable to us).

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