Comments:KW 167, Poppe 43, ОСНЯ 1, 315, АПиПЯЯ 289 (but the Jpn. form should be kept separate, see *k`ápa). A Western isogloss. The root is expressive and tends to contaminate with *kăp`è 'to squeeze, pinch' (q. v.), as well as with *k`épà `side' (in Mong.: 'to grasp' > 'press' > 'flatten, flat'), but nevertheless reconstructable for PA (despite Doerfer's doubts in TMN 3, 374); borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is quite improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 133.