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North Caucasian etymology :

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\data\cauc\caucet
Proto-North Caucasian: *=ŭGwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to rain
Proto-Nakh: *daʁu
Proto-Tsezian: *ʁ:ʷǝdǝ
Proto-Lak: ʁaral
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔoq:ʷa-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The verbal root is preserved only in PL. Other languages reflect a deverbative noun *GwV-(r)dV / *r-ŭGwV.
Proto-North Caucasian: *mărƛwĂ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cloud, rain-cloud
Proto-Nakh: *marχo
Proto-Lak: bark
Proto-Dargwa: *mark(ʷ)a
Proto-Lezghian: *marʎʷ
Proto-West Caucasian: *pǝƛa
Notes: Correspondences are regular: in PWC a usual denasalisation of *m- before a (former) medial liquid, and delabialisation *ƛʷ > *ƛ after a labial initial. Not quite clear, however, is the denasalisation (m- > b-) in the Lak. dialectal form. The comparison seems quite reliable both phonetically and semantically.
Proto-North Caucasian: *q_wVɫVq̇V ( / *q_wVq̇VɫV)
Meaning: egg; grain
Proto-Tsezian: *qõq-lV
Proto-Dargwa: *q:ulq̇i
Proto-Lezghian: *q:VlVq:
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The semantic shift 'grain' <> 'seed, egg' is rather frequent, and the etymology seems reliable both phonetically and semantically. The most archaic phonetic shape (with two different consonants) is preserved in Darg.; in Lezg. and PC the first consonant was assimilated to the second one. There is not enough evidence to reconstruct vowels in this root.
Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇wāq̇wV(-ɫV)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: seed, grain, egg
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇ʷaq̇ʷal
Proto-Tsezian: *q̇uq̇V-LV
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇Iʷaq̇I
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇oloq̇
Notes: An expressive reduplicated root (its expressive nature probably explains pharyngealisation in PD). The common morphological formation (reflexes of *-ɫV in And., Inkh. and PL, where *q̇oloq̇ < *q̇ʷaq̇-ol with metathesis), however, makes the PEC reconstruction rather probable.
Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇wVHmV
Meaning: roasted grain
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇ʷam(H)a (~q̇,ʔ-,o)
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇Iʷa
Notes: An And-Darg. isogloss. The reconstruction is rather insecure, because within Andian the root is present only in Cham.
Proto-North Caucasian: *mä̆ɦnɨ̄ (~-ū)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brain, head
Proto-Nakh: *min-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *minʔa-r
Proto-Lak: naI
Proto-Dargwa: *meħa
Proto-Lezghian: *mahI
Notes: Reconstructed for PEC. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *mǝ̆hwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grain, seed; a k. of cereal
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *muħV
Proto-Tsezian: *moħ A
Proto-Dargwa: *maħa-r
Proto-Lezghian: *maʔ(ʷ)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳV̆rḳV̆(-nV)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: small stone, grain, egg
Proto-Nakh: *ḳiḳel
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳorḳonV
Proto-Tsezian: *ḳeḳe
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳäḳäl (~ -l:)
Proto-West Caucasian: *ḳanǝḳa / *ḳaḳanǝ
Notes: One of several EC and NC roots with the structure *KVKV denoting some small object. The root is expressive, and it is hard to reconstruct vowels; however, consonantal correspondences are quite regular and the root is well represented, thus it must be reconstructed for PNC. See Abdokov 1983, 134 (with some confusion of several roots mentioned above). Cf. Hurr. kirikiri(j)annǝ 'seed of pine-cone' ( > Akkad. kirkiriannu), see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 57.

    Similar roots are known in Kartvelian (PK *ḳaḳal- 'nut', *ḳaḳa- 'fruit stone'); however, the supposition of a late loan of Lezg. forms from Georg. ḳaḳali 'walnut' (Klimov 1972, 352) or from Arm. k:ak:al id. (Klimov, Vinogradova 1979, 158) is unacceptable - both because Lezg. forms are very different semantically and because they fit well into the common NC root. The Armenian form itself is obviously a Caucasian loanword.

Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣_ădV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: rain, drizzling rain
Proto-Nakh: *derc̣
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:a[d]i
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣at:(a), *c̣at:a-l
Proto-Khinalug: c̣u
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The PN form *derc̣ is a metathesis < *c̣erd (cf. also some modern forms reflecting *c̣erc̣ with assimilation), probably going back to the oblique base *c̣_ădV-rV- (other languages reflect also *c̣_ădV-rV-, cf. e.g. Akhv. c̣:ari, as well as *c̣_ădV-lV-, cf. PL *c̣at:al). The metathesis could also be favoured by analogy with *darc 'snowstorm' (see *ʒwVnćV).
Proto-North Caucasian: *=Hoǯ_Ăl
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to pour, drink; to strain, milk
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *č̣:al- (~-o-)
Proto-Lak: ħač̣a-
Proto-Dargwa: *=i(r)č:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʡoč̣:an- (~-l-)
Proto-Khinalug: loži
Proto-West Caucasian: *žV
Notes: Trubetzkoy (1930, 88-89) compares the WC root with other EC material (see *=ānʒŭ); the present comparison seems to us preferable, because the WC root contains not a hissing, but a hushing affricate (the correspondence PAK *ź : Ub., PAK *z points only to PWC *ž).
Proto-North Caucasian: *GHōlnV ( ~ -ɫ-)
Meaning: summer, rain season
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇:inu
Proto-Lezghian: *q:Iol:
Proto-Khinalug: q̇ula
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular. See Trubetzkoy 1930, 276 (and comments on p. 456).
Proto-North Caucasian: *=ĕrc_Ă
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to roast (grain); to singe
Proto-Nakh: *m-arc-
Proto-Dargwa: *=erc:-/=uc:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeca
Proto-West Caucasian: *cA
Notes: Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *lĕḳV ( ~ ɫ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grain, fruit stone
Proto-Nakh: *laḳ
Proto-Lak: lač̣a
Proto-Lezghian: *ṭi-leḳ (?)
Proto-Khinalug: li
Proto-West Caucasian: *ḳa (~ *ḳ́-)
Notes: The phonetic and semantic correlation between the PEC and PWC forms is quite satisfactory. The PWC form, however, may also correspond to another PEC root with the same scope of meaning (see *ɦămḳi 'grain, fruit-stone). We must wait for some new evidence to resolve this question.
Proto-North Caucasian: WC *kʷV
Meaning: rain
Proto-West Caucasian: *kʷV
Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦwōmdV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brain
Proto-Nakh: *ħadV (~-ā-)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ħon(d)i
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔãd̥1̇a
Proto-Lezghian: *ħomt(a)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level.
Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳä̆lḳV
Meaning: a small thing
Proto-Nakh: *ḳiḳ
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳi(n)ḳi-m
Proto-Tsezian: *ḳaḳa
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳälḳäṭ
Notes: One of several PEC expressive roots with the structure *KVKV, denoting some small thing (stone, grain, piece of dung etc.) and rather actively merging with each other (see also *ḳV̆rḳV̆-nV, *ḳǝ̄mḳV etc.).
Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦămḳi / *ḳămɦi
Meaning: seed, grain
Proto-Nakh: *ḳaw
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔaḳ ( ~ *ħ-)
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔanḳi
Proto-Lezghian: *hIa(m)ḳ-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇[ǝ̄]rV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a k. of weed, (wild) cereal
Proto-Nakh: *ʔarV ( ~ -ē-)
Proto-Tsezian: *q̇orV ( ~ -u-,-l-)
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇ar
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇Vr
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The vocalism in PL is somewhat aberrant; otherwise the correspondences are regular. A semantic development 'wild cereal' > 'grain, wheat (domestic)' occurred in PL.
Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇_wǝmV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grain, fruit stone
Proto-Tsezian: *qama ( ~ ɔ)
Proto-Lak: q:ama
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇um
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
Proto-North Caucasian: *gagV
Meaning: grain, fruit stone
Proto-Nakh: *gVg
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *gaga
Proto-Lak: k:uk:u
Proto-Lezghian: *k:ak:aj
Notes: An expressive reduplicated root; seems, however, to be well reconstructable for PEC. Cf. also Osset. gaga 'grain' (see Abayev 1958, 505).
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