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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *ud-luk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hip, thigh
Russian meaning: бедро
Old Turkic: udluq (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: uδluq (MK)
Turkish: ujluk
Middle Turkic: ujluq (Pav. C.)
Sary-Yughur: utuq, otuq
Turkmen: ujluq, uwluq
Khakassian: ustux 'knee'
Shor: ustuq
Yakut: ulluk
Comments: EDT 55, VEWT 510, ЭСТЯ 1, 578-579, Лексика 282.
Proto-Turkic: *ugu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tinder
Russian meaning: трут
Chuvash: ъʷvъʷ
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 147.
Proto-Turkic: *ug-ur-, *ug-ra-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to meet, go to meet; to intend 2 occasion, reason, time
Russian meaning: 1 встречать, направляться к; намереваться 2 случай, причина, раз
Old Turkic: uɣra- 1, uɣur 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: uɣra- 1, uɣur 2 (MK)
Turkish: uɣra- 1, ūr 2
Middle Turkic: oɣur 2 (R), uɣra- 1 (Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: ūr 2 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: uɣur 2
Turkmen: uGra- 1, uGur 2
Balkar: oɣur 2
Gagauz: ūr 2, ūra- 1
Karaim: oɣur 2, oɣra- 1
Kumyk: oɣur 2
Comments: EDT 89, 91, ЭСТЯ 1, 564-565, TMN 2, 604. Turk. > MMong. (MA) uɣra- (see Щербак 1997, 198).
Proto-Turkic: *ugut
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ferment
Russian meaning: закваска
Karakhanid: uɣut (MK)
Oyrat: ūt
Kirghiz: uɣut
Kazakh: uvɨt
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 575.
Proto-Turkic: *u(j)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be able, capable
Russian meaning: мочь
Old Turkic: u- (OUygh., Orkh.)
Karakhanid: u- (MK)
Chuvash: -i-/-j-
Yakut: uj-
Comments: VEWT 510, EDT 5.
Proto-Turkic: *uja
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: nest
Russian meaning: гнездо
Old Turkic: uja (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: uja (MK)
Turkish: juwa
Tatar: oja
Middle Turkic: juwa, uja (AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: uja
Uighur: uwa, uga
Sary-Yughur: uja, oja 'egg'
Azerbaidzhan: juwa
Khakassian: uja
Oyrat: uja
Chuvash: jъʷva
Yakut: uja
Dolgan: uja
Tuva: uja
Tofalar: uja
Kirghiz: uja
Kazakh: uja
Noghai: uja
Bashkir: oja
Gagauz: juwa
Karaim: juwa, uja
Karakalpak: uja
Kumyk: uja
Comments: VEWT 511, EDT 267, ЭСТЯ 4, 239, Егоров 73, Stachowski 242.
Proto-Turkic: *uja
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: relation, blood relation
Russian meaning: родственник, кровный родственник
Old Turkic: uja (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: uja 'brother, kinsman'
Tatar: oja 'family, kin'
Middle Turkic: uja 'younger sister' (Sangl.), 'brother' (`Ali), 'blood relation' (Qutb)
Turkmen: uja 'sister'
Yakut: uja 'generation'
Kirghiz: ujalaš 'by one venter'
Karakalpak: ujalas 'by one venter'
Comments: VEWT 511, EDT 267.
Proto-Turkic: *uja-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be ashamed 2 shame
Russian meaning: 1 стыдиться 2 стыд
Old Turkic: ujad- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ujaδ- (MK, KB), ujal- (MK)
Turkish: ujat- 1, ujat 2 (dial.)
Tatar: ŭjal- 1, ŭjat 2
Middle Turkic: ujal-, ujat- 1, ujat 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Uighur: ujat 2, ujal-, (dial.) ujat- 1
Turkmen: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Khakassian: ujat- 1, ujat 2
Oyrat: ujat 2, ujal- 1
Tuva: ɨjat- 1, ɨjat 2
Kirghiz: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Kazakh: ŭjal- 1, ŭjat 2
Noghai: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Bashkir: ŭjal- 1, ŭjat 2
Balkar: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Karaim: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Karakalpak: ujal- 1, ujat 2
Kumyk: ujat- 1 (tr.), ujat 2
Comments: VEWT 511, ЭСТЯ 1, 561-563 (confused with *ubut q. v. sub *i̯upo), 576, EDT 269, 272-273.
Proto-Turkic: *ujɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stiffen
Russian meaning: неметь, цепенеть
Old Turkic: ujɨrqan- joqurqan- (OUygh.)
Turkish: ujuš-
Tatar: ŭjɨ-, ŭjɨš-
Middle Turkic: ujuš- (AH)
Uzbek: ujuš-
Azerbaidzhan: ujuš-
Noghai: ujɨ-
Bashkir: ŭjŭ-, ŭjŭš-
Gagauz: ujvaš-
Karakalpak: ujɨ-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 582, ДТС 608.
Proto-Turkic: *ujuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: (felt) stockings
Russian meaning: (войлочные) чулки
Old Turkic: ujuq (OUygh. - late)
Turkish: ujuk (dial.)
Tatar: ŭjɨq
Turkmen: ujuq (dial.)
Kazakh: ŭjɨq
Noghai: ujɨq
Bashkir: ŭjŭq
Balkar: ujük
Comments: ДТС 608, VEWT 511, ЭСТЯ 1, 581-582, Лексика 481. The root should be distinguished from *uk q. v. sub *p`òk`à (there is no way of uniting them phonetically).
Proto-Turkic: *uk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to understand 2 to hear
Russian meaning: 1 понимать 2 слышать
Old Turkic: uq- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: uq- (MK, KB) 1
Tatar: dial. ux- 2
Middle Turkic: uq- (IM, Qutb)
Uzbek: uq- 1
Uighur: uq- 1
Azerbaidzhan: dial. uɣuz 'knowing much'
Khakassian: ux- 1, 2
Shor: uq- 1
Oyrat: dial. uq- 2
Tuva: uɣ- 1
Kirghiz: uq- 2
Kazakh: uɣɨn- 1
Karakalpak: uq- 1
Comments: VEWT 511-12, EDT 77-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 584-585. Turk. > Hung. ok 'reason', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *uk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: kin, tribe
Russian meaning: род, племя
Old Turkic: uq ~ oq 'kin, tribe'
Karakhanid: uq ~ oq (MK) 'share of inheritance'
Oyrat: uq
Chuvash: jъʷx
Tuva: uq
Kazakh: ŭq (dial.)
Comments: VEWT 511, ЭСТЯ 1, 582-583, Егоров 76. The OT words are sometimes erroneously united with *ok 'arrow' (thus in EDT 76).
Proto-Turkic: *uk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: felt stocking
Russian meaning: войлочный чулок
Karakhanid: uɣuq (MK)
Middle Turkic: uq (Pav. C.)
Khakassian: ux
Oyrat: uq
Tuva: uq
Comments: EDT 83, ЭСТЯ 1, 581, Лексика 481. The form in MK is probably = *uk-ug (derived from the simple *uk reflected elsewhere). The root should be distinguished from *ujuk (v. sub *ujV(k`V)).
Proto-Turkic: *ukruk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: lasso, lasso pole
Russian meaning: аркан, жердь с арканом
Karakhanid: uqruq (MK)
Tatar: qŭrɨq
Middle Turkic: oqruq (AH)
Uzbek: qọruq
Uighur: oquruq (dial.)
Turkmen: uquruq (dial.)
Yakut: ogūr, oguruk
Kirghiz: uquruq
Kazakh: qŭrɨq
Noghai: qurɨq
Bashkir: qŭrŭq
Karakalpak: qurɨq
Kumyk: uqruq (dial.)
Comments: VEWT 360, EDT 90, ЭСТЯ 1, 585-586. Turk. > Hung. hurok 'loop', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *ul
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 foundation 2 sole
Russian meaning: 1 дно, основание 2 подошва, подметка
Old Turkic: ultaŋ 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ul 1, uldaŋ 2 (MK)
Turkish: oltan, oltaŋ (dial.) 2
Tatar: ŭltan 2
Middle Turkic: ölteŋ 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ultɔn 2
Uighur: ultaŋ 2, (dial.) ūl, ul 1
Turkmen: oltaŋ 2
Khakassian: ultuŋ 2
Oyrat: ultaŋ, ultan, ɨltam 2
Yakut: ulluŋ 2
Tuva: ulduŋ 2
Kirghiz: ultaŋ 2
Kazakh: ŭltan 2
Noghai: ultan 2
Bashkir: ŭltan 2
Balkar: oltaŋ, oltan 2
Karakalpak: ultan 2
Kumyk: ultan 2
Comments: EDT 124, 131, ЭСТЯ 1, 449-451.
Proto-Turkic: *ula-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to extend, prolong 2 to attach, join (ends)
Russian meaning: 1 удлинять, надставлять, продлевать 2 присоединять
Old Turkic: ula- 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ula- 2 (MK)
Turkish: ula- 2
Tatar: ŭla- (dial.)
Middle Turkic: ula- (Pav. C.) 2
Uzbek: ulä- 1, 2
Uighur: uli- 2
Turkmen: ula- 1, 2
Khakassian: ula- 1
Shor: ula- 1
Oyrat: ula- 1, 2
Tuva: ula- 1, 2
Kirghiz: ula- 2
Comments: EDT 126-127, ЭСТЯ 1, 587-588. The original meaning was certainly 'to extend, prolong' - as seen also from the derivatives *ula-m 'still more, continuously' (ЭСТЯ 1, 591) (whence Mong. *ulam id., see TMN 2, 107), *ula-ju 'still more, as much as', *ulag 'order, relay, relay station' (ЭСТЯ 1, 588-590) (whence Mong. *ulaɣa id., see TMN 2, 106, Щербак 1997, 161; with the meaning 'relay horse' penetrated into some Ugric languages, despite Sinor 1965, 312-315 who proposed an opposite direction of borrowing);
Proto-Turkic: *uĺa-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 small, minute 2 to become crushed, pulverized, smaller 3 to crush, pulverize
Russian meaning: 1 мелкий, маленький 2 дробиться, становиться меньше 3 растирать, дробить
Karakhanid: uša-l- 2, ušaq 1
Turkish: ušak 1
Middle Turkic: ušaq 1, ušal- 2 (Бор. Бад.), ušat- 3 (Бор. Бад., Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ušal- 2, ušɔq 1
Uighur: ušaq (dial.), uššaq 1
Azerbaidzhan: ušaG 1
Turkmen: uša- 2, ušaq 1
Khakassian: uzax 1
Oyrat: uža- 3
Kirghiz: ušat- 3, ušaq 1
Kazakh: ŭsaq 1, ŭsat- 3
Gagauz: ušaq 1
Karakalpak: usaq 1, usat- 3
Comments: EDT 16, 262 (deriving the forms from uvša- which is hardly the case), ЭСТЯ 1, 617-618.
Proto-Turkic: *uĺak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: slander
Russian meaning: клевета
Karakhanid: ušaq (MK)
Tatar: ušaq Tob. 'slanderer' (R)
Middle Turkic: ušuluq 'suspicion' (Pav. C.), ušaq (CCum.)
Uighur: uššaq
Yakut: usxax 'rumour'
Kirghiz: ušaq
Bashkir: ošaq
Balkar: ušaq 'conversation'
Comments: VEWT 517, EDT 16 (confused with uvšak 'small').
Proto-Turkic: *ular
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 partridge 2 snow pheasant 3 wild turkey
Russian meaning: 1 куропатка 2 глухарь 3 горная индейка
Old Turkic: ular 1 (OUygh.- med.)
Karakhanid: ular 'male partridge' (MK)
Uzbek: ular (< Russ.?) 3
Uighur: ular 3
Shor: ularɨ 1 (Chul.)
Oyrat: ular 'vulture'
Yakut: ular 2
Tuva: ular 3
Kirghiz: ular 3
Kazakh: ular 3
Comments: EDT 150, VEWT 512 (Mong. ularu < Turk.), Лексика 173. Turk. > Russ. улар.
Proto-Turkic: *ulug
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 big 2 great 3 grown-up, great
Russian meaning: 1 большой 2 великий 3 взрослый, крупный
Old Turkic: uluɣ 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: uluɣ 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: ulu 2
Tatar: ölkɛn 1
Middle Turkic: uluɣ, uluq 1 (Pav. C.)
Uighur: uluɣ 1
Azerbaidzhan: ulu 2
Turkmen: ulɨ 1
Khakassian: uluɣ 1
Yakut: ulaxan, ulū 1
Dolgan: ulakan, ulū 1
Tuva: uluɣ 1
Tofalar: uluɣ 1
Kirghiz: uluu 2
Kazakh: ulken 1
Noghai: üjken 1
Bashkir: ölkän 1
Balkar: ullu 1
Karakalpak: ülken 1
Comments: VEWT 513, 520, TMN 2, 117-118, EDT 136, ЭСТЯ 1, 593-594, 630, Stachowski 242, 243. Turkic languages reveal two variants (*ulug and *ülken, the latter being represented only in modern languages), probably interrelated. Despite Bang TB X and TMN 2, 118 it is hard to see any relationship between *ulug (hardly *ullug: some modern forms must have secondary gemination here) and *ul 'foundation'.
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