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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *c̣ăjɨ̆
Meaning: fire, brilliance
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *c̣ăjɨ̆
Sino-Tibetan: *ʒāj(H)
Burushaski: *śi
Basque: *śu
Comments and references : NSC 52 *c̣AjV, DCE 23. Differently (: PNC *ʒ_wahrī `star') in WFR 16, LV B29 (but cf. under *ʒwahrī).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣ăjɨ̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Proto-Nakh: *c̣e
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣aʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *c̣ǝ A
Proto-Lak: c̣u
Proto-Dargwa: *ċa
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣aj
Proto-Khinalug: č̣ä
Proto-West Caucasian: *mAc̣ʷa
Notes: One of the most reliable and stable common NC lexemes. The PWC form has a prefixed *ma- of somewhat obscure origin; the labialisation of *c̣ʷ must be explained either by the labialising influence of *m- or by the former oblique base vocalism *-ŭ- (suggested by PL obl. base *c̣ojɨ- / *c̣a(j)-rV-). See Trubetzkoy 1930, 276; Abdokov 1983, 98.

    Many languages reflect an old oblique base formed with the *-rV suffix (*c̣aj-rV-), cf. PN *c̣ari-, PA *c̣ari- (reflected in Akhv. č̣ari), Lak. *c̣ara-, PL *c̣a(j)-rV-. The same stem with reduplication is probably reflected in PL *c̣arc̣ar 'luster, glitter' (Tab., Lezg. c̣arc̣ar) exactly corresponding to PAT *cǝrǝcǝrǝ 'to glitter' (Abkh. a-cǝrcǝr-ra, Abaz. cǝrcǝr-ra) (with the same loss of glottalisation and absence of labialisation as in *mǝca 'fire').

    Another old derivate of the same root is probably PNC *c̣aj-lV 'brilliance, lightning' reflected in PN *stēla (~*sṭ-) ( > Chech. stēla-ʕad 'rainbow', stēla-χäštig 'lightning', /Usl./ stēla 'thunder', Ing. sela-ʕad 'rainbow'), Lak. c̣aj 'brilliance, glitter', PD *c̣ala (Ak. c̣ala 'sparkle', Chir. c̣ala-laIm 'lightning') and PAK *c̣ǝ-wǝ- (with a verbal stem *-wǝ-) 'to shine, glitter' (Ad. Bzhed. c̣ǝ-wǝ-, Kab. c̣ǝ-wǝ-). Note that *-j, having passed to word-medial position in PN, has caused the shift *c̣- > *st- (*sṭ-); note also the absence of labialisation in PAK *c̣ (without the prefixed *mV-).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *c̣e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Chechen: c̣e
Ingush: c̣i
Batsbi: c̣e
Comments: PN paradigm: *c̣e, *c̣ari- (Chech. c̣era-, Ing. c̣ero, Bacb. c̣ari-); 4th class.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣aʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Avar: c̣a
Chadakolob: č̣a
Andian language: c̣a
Akhvakh: č̣ari
Chamalal: c̣ā
Tindi: c̣ā
Karata: c̣aj
Botlikh: c̣aj
Bagvalal: c̣aj
Godoberi: c̣aji
Comments: Av. paradigm C (c̣e-l/c̣a-dúl, c̣ája-l). Cf. also Cham. Gig. c̣aj, Gad. lā, Kar. Tok. c̣e, Arch.,Rach. c̣aji. The Akhv. form reflects an archaic oblique base *c̣ari-.

    In most Andian languages the verb 'burn' is derived from this root (cf. And. c̣a-to-, Akhv. č̣o-ru-, Cham. c̣ah-, Tind. c̣ahal- etc.).

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *c̣ǝ A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Tsezi: c̣i
Ginukh: č̣e
Khvarshi: c̣a
Inkhokvari: c̣o
Bezhta: c̣o
Gunzib: c̣ǝ
Comments: PTsKh *c̣ǝ, PGB *c̣ǝ.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c̣u
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Lak form: c̣u
Comments: 4th class. Obl. base c̣ara-.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *c̣a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Akusha: c̣a
Chiragh: c̣a
Comments: Cf. also Ur., Kub., Tsud. c̣a etc.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣aj
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Lezghian: c̣aj
Tabasaran: c̣a
Agul: c̣a
Rutul: c̣aj
Tsakhur: c̣a
Kryz: c̣ä
Budukh: c̣ǝ
Archi: oc̣
Udi: aruχ
Comment: The oblique base must be reconstructed as *c̣ojɨ- with Ablaut (cf. Lezg. c̣u-, Khl. jɨc̣ɨ-, Tab. c̣i-, Ag. c̣i-, Rut., Kryz. c̣ɨ-; with vowel levelling Tsakh. c̣ajɨ-, Bud. c̣ǝji-). There also must have existed a parallel *-r-base *c̣o(j)-rV-, cf. Arch. loc. c̣ere-qI and the Udi a-r-uχ (originally a plural form). 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 83; Лексика 1971, 193; Гигинейшвили 1977, 100; Талибов 1980, 296.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: č̣ä
North Caucasian etymology: 38
Meaning: fire
Khinalug form: č̣ä
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *mAc̣ʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Abkhaz: á-mca
Abaza: mca
Adyghe: mās.̌a
Kabardian: māf̣a
Ubykh: mǝǯ́á
Comments: PAT *mǝca (cf. also Bzyb. á-mca). PAK *mac̣ʷá. Ub. def. á-mǯ́a. The root presents some irregularities. The PAT and Ub. forms reveal a secondary delabialisation (PAT *mǝca < *mǝcʷa; Lomtatidze (1942, 862, 865) is probably right in assuming that the original labialized form is preserved in PAT *macʷǝ-śǝ 'lightning' ("fire"+"beat"); Ub. mǝǯ́á < *mǝʒʷa). The same languages also have lost glottalisation. The most archaic form (judging from the external evidence) is PAK *mac̣ʷá.

    Cf. also PAT *cʷǝ- in *cʷǝ-mǝsa 'tinder' ( = PL *c̣ojɨ-mäs, see under *mä̆sA); this is probably the only trace of the prefixless stem in WC languages.

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʒāj(H)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: white, brilliant
Chinese: *chājʔ white and brilliant.
Tibetan: gzi shine, brightness.
Burmese: sa to shine (of moon, sun).
Kachin: (H) ǯan ze to shine, as the sun (ǯan).
Kiranti: Kulung cha-ma blaze
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-kir,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: cuō
Preclassic Old Chinese: shāj
Classic Old Chinese: shāj
Western Han Chinese: shāj
Eastern Han Chinese: shǟ
Early Postclassic Chinese: shā
Middle Postclassic Chinese: shā
Late Postclassic Chinese: shā
Middle Chinese: châ
English meaning : be white, bright
Comments: Also read *shājʔ, MC chấ (FQ 千可) id.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 0005 i
Shijing occurrences: 47.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *śi
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: fireplace, hearth
Hunza: śi
Nagar: śi
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *śu
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fire
Bizkaian: su
Gipuzkoan: su
High Navarrese: su
Low Navarrese: su
Salazarese: su
Lapurdian: su
Baztanese: su
Aezkoan: su
Zuberoan:
Roncalese: su
Comments: An exceptional form with a fossilized class prefix is Araban itsu 'fire' in itsu arri 'flint' < *i=ću har̄i 'fire stone' = (c) su(h)arri 'flint'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVJV
Meaning : to blink, shine, shade
Eurasiatic : *CajV
Afroasiatic : *ĉ̣uḥay- ?
Sino-Caucasian : *c̣ăjɨ̆
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *ʒ́o[a] "ashes".
Reference : ОСНЯ 1, 199 (*c̣äjħa)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *c`ajV
Meaning: to blink, shine, shade
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *sḱeiǝ-
Altaic: *saja
Uralic: *saja (*śäjä (Setälä FUF 2, 267) ) (if not < IIr.)
Kartvelian: *ca-
Dravidian: *sāj- (*c-)
References: ОСНЯ 1, 199 (*c̣äjħa), МССНЯ 348.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *sk'āy-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: shadow, indirect light
Tokharian: B skiyo 'shade, shadow' (Adams 706)
Old Indian: chāyā́ f. `shade, shadow; reflection'
Avestan: a-saya- `wer keinen Schatten wirft'
Other Iranian: NPers sāya `Schatten, Schutz'
Old Greek: skiǟ́ f. `Schatten', skieró-, skiaró- `schattenreich, Schatten werfend, beschattet', skai̯ó- `schattig' (Nik.), skíro-n (? / *skī̂ro-n) n. Bez. eines weissen Sonnenschirms od. Baldachins, der bei Prozessionen von der Akropolis nach einem Skîron (Skíron) benannten Orte an der heiligen Strasse nach Eleusis zu Ehren der Athena (Skiras) und anderer Göttinnen und Götter gwetragen wurde; pl. Skíra N. eines Frauenfestes zu Ehren der Demeter Kore und der Athena Polias; skǟnǟ́ f. `Zelt(dach), Bude, Schmaus; Bühne(ngebäude), Szene', skǟ̂nos n. `Körper (= Zelt der Seele), Leichnam'
Slavic: *sьjātī, *sējǭ, *sēnь
Germanic: *skī-n-a- vb., *skī-n-a- m., n., *skī-n-ō(n-) f., *skī-m-an- m., *ski-m-an- m., *ski-m-Vr-ia- vb.
Albanian: hē, hie `Schatten'; hir `Gnade Gottes'
Russ. meaning: тень, непрямой свет
References: WP II 535 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: сия́ть,
Near etymology: сия́ю, укр. ся́ти, ся́ю, др.-русск., ст.-слав. сити λάμπειν (Клоц., Супр.), сербск.-цслав. синути (*синѫти), болг. сия́ен "блестящий; лучезарный", сербохорв. сjа̏ти, сjа̑м, словен. sijáti, sȋjem "сиять", síniti, sȋnem "засиять", далее родственно цслав. присоıе "солнцепек", сербохорв. òсоjе "тенистое место", а также сень.
Further etymology: Ср. также гот. skeinan "светить, блестеть", греч. σκιά "тень", σκοιός "тенистый", алб. hē "тень", др.-инд. сhāуā́ "блеск; тень", нов.-перс. sāуа "тень, защита", вероятно, также лтш. seja "лицо" (Розвадовский, Jagić-Festschr. 304; Траутман, ВSW 304; М.--Э. 3, 96; Младенов 655; Перссон 700; Торп 461 и сл.; Сольмсен, Unters. gr. Lautl. 278). В стороне остается греч. καίνυμαι "превосхожу", ирл. cáin "прекрасный, приветливый", вопреки Бецценбергеру (у Стокса 64), а также алб. si, sü "глаз", вопреки Г. Майеру (Alb. Wb. 383); см. Педерсен, KZ 36, 318.
Pages: 3,629
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *skīnan- vb., *skīna-z, -n, *skīnō(n), *skīmēn, *skimēn, *skimrian- vb.
Meaning: shine, shimmer
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: skīnan st. `shine, gleam'; *skīma `torch'
Old Norse: skīna st. `scheinen'; skin n. `Glanz, Licht'; skim n., skimi m. `Glanz, Licht', ? skī n. `Verstellung; Zauberei'; skjār m. `durchsichtige Kalbshaut als Fensterscheibe'
Norwegian: skina vb.; skin; skime `kurzer Schimmer, Verwirrung'; dial. skim `schwacher Glanz, Nordlicht'
Old Swedish: skina vb.; skir adj.
Swedish: dial. skim 'schwacher Glanz, Nordlicht'; sken; skär adj.; dial. skia `weissgefleckte Kuh'
Danish: skine vb.; skin
Old English: scīnan `scheinen, leuchten, glänzen', scima m. `Schatten', scīma m. `Licht, Klarheit', scimrian `glanzen', scīn n. `wonderlijke verschijning, spook'
English: shine, shimmer
Old Frisian: skīna vb.; skīn m., n.? `(zonne)schijn', skīn n., skīne f. `bewijs'; skymrian
Old Saxon: skīnan; skīn m. `Schein, Glanz', { scima `Schatten' }, skimo, skīmo `Glanz, Schimmer'; skīr(i) `helder, duidelijk'
Middle Dutch: scīnen; scēmeren `met een schaduw bedekt zijn; glanzen, flikkeren, schitteren'; scēme m., n., f. `schaduw, schim, lichtglans'; scim, scem `schaduw; schim'; scijn m., n., scīne m., f. `glans, schijn, uiterlijk, wezen, manier, toestand, blijk, bewijs, akte'
Dutch: schijnen; schemeren; schim f.; schijn m.
Middle Low German: schīnen; schēmeren `beschaduwen, donker zijn, worden of maken, schemeren', scimeringe `schemering'; schēme
Old High German: skīnan (8.Jh.) `scheinen, leuchten, glänzen', skīn {m.} (9.Jh.) `Schein', skīmo (8.Jh.) m. `Glanz, Schimmer'; skema '= larva, persona' (11.Jh.)
Middle High German: schīnen st. 'strahlen, glänzen, leuchten, erscheinen, sichtbar erden, dem Schein nach (aber nicht in Wirklichkeit) sein'; schëm(e) wk./st. m. `Schatten(bild), verlarvte, maskierte Erscheinung', scheim st. m. 'glanz, schimmer; larve, maske; schaum'; schīn st. m. 'Strahl, Glanz, Helligkeit, Sichtbarkeit, sichtbarer Beweiss'; schīm(e) st./wk. m. 'strahl, glanz, schimmer'; EaHG niederrhein. schimmen (um 1300), md. schemen (15.Jh.) 'blinken, funkeln'
German: scheinen; Schein m.; Schemen m., Scheme m. (noch in 18.Jh.); schimmern
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1714
Root: sk̂āi-, sk̂ǝi- : sk̂ī-
English meaning: to glimmer (of wet things); shadow
German meaning: `gedämpft schimmern; Schatten (Abglanz)'
Derivatives: sk̂ii̯ā- `Schatten'; sk̂ī-ro- `klar'
Material: Ai. chāyā́ `Glanz, Schimmer, Schatten', av. a-saya- `wer keinen Schatten wirft', np. sāya `Schatten, Schutz';

    gr. σκιά̄ f. (sk̂ii̯-ā) `Schatten', σκιερός, hom. σκιόεις `schattig, dunkel', σκίρον `Sonnenschirm' (formal = alb. hir, mit Länge got. skeirs); mit der Stufe sk̂ā[i]-: σκηνή, dor.σκᾱνά̄ `Zelt, Bühne, Szene', σκη̃νος, dor. σκα̃νος n. `Zelt; Leib (als Hülle der Seele)'; σκη̃ν `Schmetterling, Motte' Hes.; σκίναρ n. `Leib';

    alb. , hie `Schatten' (*sk̂ii̯ā), hir `Gnade' (= gr. σκίρον), (h)ona `Schatten' (*skēi-n-?), geg. huj `Gott';

    aisl. skī n. `Heuchelei' (: gr. σκιά̄), got. skeinan `scheinen, leuchten, glänzen', aisl. skīna ds., ahd. ags. scīnan ds., nhd. scheinen (n-Präs., vgl. aksl. sinǫti; ob auch in lat.scintilla `Funke' eine Bildung von einem ähnlichen Ausgangspunkt aus vorliegt, ist fraglich (Ableitung eines *sk̂i-nto- `glänzend'?); aisl. skīn n., as. skīn, ahd. scīn m. `Schein, Glanz'; ags. as. scima, mhd. scheme `Schatten', nhd. Schemen `schattenhafte Gestalt', aisl. skimi m. `Glanz', nhd. schimmern, Schimmel usw.; got. skeima `Leuchte, Fackel', ahd. as. scīmo, ags. scīma m. `Licht, Glanz'; mhd. scheim ds.; ohne s- wohl norw. hīm, hīma, wie skīm `dünne Decke, Häutchen' (als `durchscheinend', vgl.:) aisl. skjār m. `durchsichtige Haut, Fensterrahmen'; got.skeirs `klar', aisl. skīrr, ags. scīr `durchsichtig, hell, rein', mhd. (md.) schīr `lauter', nhd. schier; aisl. skǣrr `rein, klar' (*skairi-r), afries. skēria `reinigen';

    lett. seja (*k̂ei̯ā) `Schatten, Spiegelbild, Gesicht';

    aksl. sijati, sinǫti `glänzen, hell werden', sěnь `Schatten' (neben stěnь für *scěnь); čech. čirý `lauter', russ. ščíryj `wahrhaft, echt' (got. Lw.?), ksl. *širъ `offen', Adv. širý usw.;

    toch. В skiyo `Schatten' (= gr. σκιά̄).

References: WP. II 535 f., WH. I 131, Jokl L.-U. 60 ff., Trautmann 304.
Pages: 917-918
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sằja ( ~ z-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: clear, dawn
Russian meaning: ясный, рассвет
Tungus-Manchu: *saj-
Korean: *sāi-
Japanese: *sàjà-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. Dag. sajarin 'dawn' is probably < Tung.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *saj-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 dawn 2 to dawn 3 light 4 clear, bright
Russian meaning: 1 рассвет, заря 2 рассветать 3 свет 4 светлый, светловатый
Evenki: sajirūl- 2, sajirūlǯarī 1, (dial.) šajama 3, hājeme 4
Comments: ТМС 2, 55, 309, 423. Attested only in Evk., with probable parallels in Kor. and Jpn.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sāi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to dawn
Russian meaning: рассветать
Modern Korean: sǟ-
Middle Korean: sāi-
Comments: Nam 295, KED 921.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sàjà-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: clear, light
Russian meaning: светлый, ясный
Old Japanese: saja, saja-ke-
Middle Japanese: sàjà, sàjà-ke-
Tokyo: sáyaka
Kyoto: sàyákà
Kagoshima: sayaká
Comments: JLTT 520.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1550
Proto: *saja
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: shadow
German meaning: Schatten
Finnish: suoja 'Schutz, Schirm, Zufluchtsort; dial. Gebäude, Stube; Tauwetter; sanft, mild (vom Wetter)', suojele- 'beschützen, verteidigen, hüten' ( > Saam. N suoggjâli- 'protect, keep safe'), suoju- 'warm werden, beruhigt, besänftigt werden' ?
Estonian: soe (gen. soa, sooja) 'warm, Wärme; liebreich, liebevoll' ?
Saam (Lapp): suoggje -j- (N) 'lee, shelter; protection', suodje (L) 'Windschutz, Lee', si̮ǝ̑i̯ja (T), sū͕i̯j(e) (Kld.), su͕o͕i̯jǝ (Not.) 'Schutz (vor Regen, Wind)', ? šuoggja -j- ~ šuoggje -j- (N) 'supernatural being which rejoices at people's misfortunes', sjuodjė̄ (L) 'ein übernatürliches Wesen, das überall da ist und alles hört' ?
Mari (Cheremis): šaj-kǝ̑, šajǝ̑k (KB) 'hinter (acc.)', šajkǝ̑la 'nach hinten zu'; šoj-ć (B) 'von hinten, hinter', šojǝ̑lč id., šojlan 'später; šojŭl (M) 'das Hintere, Hinter-'; śöśte- (M U), šöšte- (U) 'beschatten' (? also attributed to *saśtV - SAS)
Udmurt (Votyak): saj (S) 'Küħɫɛ, Frische', saj (G) 'Zufluchtsstätte', saj (Wied.) 'Schatten; Kühlung'
Komi (Zyrian): saj (S) 'Raum hinter etw.', saje̮ (P) 'hinter (acc.), hinten', saji̮n 'hinter (dat.), hinten'; sa.jø (PO) 'hinter' (acc.), sa.jøn 'hinter (dat.)' ( > Khanty säj (V), saj (DN O) 'Schutz, Hinterraum; Vorhang', Mansi N saj 'abseits gelegener Ort'), sajk (Ud.) 'прохлада, свежесть' ( > Khanty O sajǝk 'nüchtern, nicht berauscht', Mansi So. sājǝk 'id.; frisch', sajik (N) 'frostig, kühl, kalt; nüchtern'), sajed (I) 'Schutz, Schirm'
Sammalahti's version: *so/aja
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-samm2,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ca-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: небо
English meaning: sky
Georgian: ca-
Megrel: ca-
Svan: cā-š
Svan meaning (Rus.): четверг
Svan meaning (Eng.): Thursday
Laz: (m)ca-, (n)ca-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 222, EWK 443-444. Климов сравнивает основу с ПСК *ʒǝ̆wɨ̆ 'небо' (NCED 1092-1093), что сомнительно по фонетическим соображениям. Возможно, лучше сопоставить с ПИЕ *sḱeiǝ- 'сиять, мерцать', урал. *śäjä 'мерцать, светиться', драв. *cāj 'блеск', для которых Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 199) восстанавливает *c̣äjḥa, хотя возможна и реконструкция *cäjV.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *sāj- (*c-)
Meaning : beauty, light
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *Sāj-
Notes : Cf. also Kui sānja 'to be proper, beautiful'.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *Sāj-
Meaning : brilliance, beauty
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : cāy
Tamil meaning : brilliance, light, beauty, colour, fame, reputation
Tamil derivates : cāyam colour, tinge, tint, dye, true colour, real nature; cāyal beauty, gracefulness, colour, likeness, resemblance, reflected image, shadow; āy (-v-, -nt-) to be or become beautiful; n. beauty; ai beauty; aitu that which is beautiful, beauty; aiya beautiful
Malayalam : cāy
Malayalam meaning : beauty
Malayalam derivates : cāyam colour, dye, paint; cāyal shape, figure, resemblance, beauty, colour
Kodagu : cāy
Kodagu meaning : beauty
Kodagu derivates : cāylɨ well (adv.); cāykārë handsome man; fem. cāykarati
Proto-Nilgiri : *Sāv-ĭ
Number in DED : 2457
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *Sāv-ĭ
Meaning : colour
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : cāyv
Number in DED : 2457
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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