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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *cVmV́
Meaning: how much; if
North Caucasian: *čwi-mV
Sino-Tibetan: *c(h)V̄m
Yenisseian: *sVm
Comments and references : HGC 36, WFR 94. PEC *čwi-mV most probably < *cwi-mV under the influence of *čwi `what, who'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *čwi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: an interrogative pronoun
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ču-, *čo-mi
Proto-Tsezian: *š:ɔ-mɔ
Proto-Lak: ci, cu
Proto-Dargwa: *čV-
Proto-Lezghian: *šʷi
Proto-Khinalug: č:u, č:i-m
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. As an independent pronoun this root probably served for the direct base of the inanimate pronoun 'what'; it also served as the root of the derived PEC *čw[ĕ]-mV 'how much' and in some other derived interrogative pronouns.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ču-, *čo-mi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 who, what 2 how many
Avar: čan 2
Chadakolob: čam 2
Andian language: čom 2
Akhvakh: ču- 1, čami 2
Chamalal: šā̃ 2
Tindi: čʷami-la 2
Karata: čam 2
Botlikh: čamu 2
Bagvalal: čamu 2
Godoberi: čamu 2
Comments: In the meaning 'who, what' the root has been preserved only in Akhvakh (with changeable class suffixes); all other languages reflect only the old derivate *čo-mi (or, perhaps, *čʷo-mi, cf. the Tind. form) 'how many'.

    In Akhvakh the root serves also for building quantor pronouns (čubi-da, čuga-dala 'all' etc.).

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *š:ɔ-mɔ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: how many
Tsezi: šomo
Ginukh: somo
Khvarshi: šomu (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: šomo
Comments: PTsKh *šo-mo. The stem is obviously related to other Dagestanian forms (reflecting *čʷ[ĕ]mV), but has š- (č- would be expected) under the influence of the widely spread PTs interrogative pronoun *š:i (q.v.).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: ci, cu
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun
Lak form: ci
Comments: Lak. ci 'what', cu 'who' (Khosr. ci, cʷu) (cf. also cu-kun 'how', cu-k-s:a 'how many', Khosr. ci-mi, ci-k-s:a id. etc.) A regular reflex with č- is preserved in čuw, Khosr. čū 'where'; reasons for the shift č- > c- are not clear (cf. the same development in *ču > cu '(one)self').
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *čV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun
Akusha: či
Chiragh: ča
Comments: Ak. či, Chir. ča 'who'. Cf. from the same root PD *čum 'how many' (Ak., Chir. čum etc.).
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *šʷi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what
Rutul: ši-w(i)
Tsakhur: erg. ni-še
Kryz: ši
Budukh: ši
Comment: This root should not be confused with another PL interrogative, *š:i q.v. It serves as a base for PL *šʷimV- 'how many' (Lezg. šumu-d, Tab. š̌nu-b, Rut. šumu-d, Arch. šume-jṭu; Ud. Vart. ema, Nidzh. hema is partially contaminated with another PL interrogative stem, *ha-/*hi- q.v.). A loan from Lezg. is probably Khin. sam 'how many'.

    See Гигинейшвили 1977,91; Алексеев 1985, 75.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: č:u, č:i-m
North Caucasian etymology: 2299
Meaning: an interrogative stem
Khinalug form: č:u, č:i-m
Comments: Khin. č:u 'where (to); č:i-m 'how; which'. Cf. also či-n- as the obl. base of ja(za) 'what'.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *c(h)V̄m
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: as much as
Tibetan: cam as much as.
Lushai: thūm as good as.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-lush,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *sVm
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: if
Ket: śim 'irreal particle, if, if only' (Werner 2, 196)
Yug: sim 'irreal particle, if, if only' (Werner 2, 196)
Kottish: šum
Comments: ССЕ 278. Werner 2, 196 (adding the Ket-Yug data).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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