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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gErV
Meaning: enclosure, yard
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *g(')hort-
Altaic: *gĕrV
Uralic: Perm. *kar 'settlement'
Kartvelian: ? Georg. da-v-h-gurgur-eb 'ich hege um'
References: ND 659 *ge(ʕV)rV 'to fence around, encircle; enclosed place'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g(')hort-
Meaning: garden, fenced place
Old Greek: khórto-s m. `Gehege, Hof'
Germanic: *gard-an- m.
Latin: hortus, -ī m. `Garten als eingezäunter Ort'; cohors `eingezäunter Hofraum, Viehhof; Kohorte'
Celtic: Ir gort `seges'; Cymr garth `Pferch, Hürde, Gehege', Bret garz `Hecke, Zaun'
Russ. meaning: огород, огороженный участок
References: WP I 608 f
piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *gardēn
Meaning: garden
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: { garda `Hürde, Viehhof' }
Old Frisian: garda `Garten'
Old Saxon: gardo `Garten'
Middle Dutch: gaerde m., f. `tuin'
Dutch: gaard m.
Middle Low German: gārde
Old High German: garto `Garten' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: garte wk. m. 'garten'
German: Garten m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 658
Root: ĝher-4
English meaning: to gripe, grab, enclose
German meaning: `greifen, fassen, umfassen, einfassen'
General comments: erweitert ĝherdh- (s. unten)
Derivatives: ĝhor-to-s `eingezäunter Ort'
Material: Ai. hárati `bringt, trägt, holt, nimmt', háraṇa- n. `das Bringen, Nehmen, Spenden' usw., háras- n. `Nehmen, Ergreifen, Griff, Kraft, Gewalt';

    gr. χόρτος m. `eingelegter Platz, Hof, Weideplatz'; unsicher, ob hierher χορός `Tanzplatz, Chortanz' als ursprüngl. `eingehegter Platz'; über χόριον `Nachgeburt', usw. s. unter ĝher-5, über χείρ `Hand' unter ĝhes-;

    osk. heriiad `velit', [h]erríns `caperent', lat. cohors `eingezäunter Hofraum, Viehhof, Schar, Gefolge', aus *co + idg. *ĝhr̥tís `Zusammenfassung', im Ablaut zu hortus `Garten als eingezäunter Ort' (im Altlatein auch villa), osk. húrz `hortus lucus'; zweifelhaft ist lat. hīr, īr `θέναρ, vola', s. WH. I 649;

    ir. gort `seges', gall. gorto- und gortiā `Hecke' (v. Wartburg), cymr. garth `Pferch, Hürde, Gehege' (das a nach dem aisl. Lw. gardd), bret. garz `Hecke, Zaun', dazu ir. lub-gort `Garten', acymr. Plur. luird, ncymr. lluarth, acorn. luworch-guit `wilder Garten', mcorn. lowarth `Garten', bret. liorz ds.

    Nicht zu entscheiden ist, ob got. garda `Hürde, Viehhof', afries. garda, as. gardo, ahd. garto `Garten' auf idg. *ĝhor-tó- oder auf *ĝhordho- beruhen (s. unten *ĝherdh-). - Daß norw. gaare `Jahresring im Holze', schwed. gåra, nisl. gāri `Spalte im Holz' Ablautsform zu χορός als `reis' sei, ist unwahrscheinlich.

    Unsicher, ob hierher lit. žãras `Lauf, Weg, Runde, Wendung' (Wackernagel AIGr. 251); vgl. oben gr. χορός;

    hitt. gurtas `Festung' (Benveniste BSL. 33, 139)?; s. auch ĝherdh-.

References: WP. I 603 f., WH. I 242 f., 660, 857.
Pages: 442-443
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gĕrV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: house, house poles
Russian meaning: дом, жерди в каркасе дома
Turkic: *gErekü
Mongolian: *ger
Tungus-Manchu: *gerbe-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gErekü
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 tent, yurt 2 grating of the yurt
Russian meaning: 1 юрта 2 решетка юрты
Old Turkic: kerekü 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kerekü 1 (MK)
Middle Turkic: gerege 2 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: keraga 2
Turkmen: gerege 2
Oyrat: kerege 2
Kirghiz: kerege 2
Kazakh: kerege 2
Noghai: kerege 2
Bashkir: kirägä 2
Karakalpak: kerege 2
Comments: VEWT 255, TMN 3, 592, EDT 744, ЭСТЯ 3, 24-25, Лексика 503.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ger
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: yurt, house
Russian meaning: юрта, дом
Written Mongolian: ger (L 377)
Middle Mongolian: ger (HY 17, SH), ker (IM), kir (MA)
Khalkha: ger
Buriat: ger
Kalmuck: ger
Ordos: ger
Dongxian: gie
Baoan: gar, ger (Tungren)
Dagur: geri, geŕ (Тод. Даг. 131, MD 150)
Shary-Yoghur: ger
Monguor: ger (SM 133), ges 'maison, ménage, famille' (Pl.) (SM 134), Ger
Mogol: ger; KT ger (18-1a), ZM geh[e]r (22-10a)
Comments: KW 134, MGCD 292.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gerbe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to procure poles (for the tent)
Russian meaning: заготовлять жерди (для остова юрты)
Evenki: gerbe-
Even: gerben-
Negidal: gejbe-
Orok: gelbe-
Nanai: gerbe-
Oroch: gebbe-
Comments: ТМС 1, 181.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : enclosure
Eurasiatic : *gErV
Afroasiatic : *ʔigar- ~ *ga/iʔur-
Sino-Caucasian : *gwVrV
Austric : PAN *pager 'enclosure'
Reference : ND 659.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔigar- ~ *ga/iʔur-
Meaning: wall, house, dwelling
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔigār- 'wall' 1, 'roof' 2 ~ *gʷar- 'back of the house'
Berber: *gVrur- 'enclosure'1, 'wall'2, 'place, yard' 3
Egyptian: d_rw 'part of house' (MK), d_ry 'wall', d_ry.t 'dwelling' (gr)
Western Chadic: *gar- 'village, town' 1, 'stone wall' 2, 'town-wall' 3, 'low wall or mount' 4, 'corn bin' 5
Central Chadic: *gaHur- 'enclosure' 1, 'shed' 2, 'corral' 3
East Chadic: *giHVr- 'hut' 1, ' house' 2, 'compound' 3, 'village' 4, 'dwelling place' 5
Beḍauye (Beja): gaʔra, gaarʔa 'yard'
Low East Cushitic: *guʔur- 'house' 1, 'wall' 2
High East Cushitic: *goʔr- 'shed'
South Cushitic: *garVʔ- 'wall of the verandah'
Omotic: *gVHol- 'house' - cf.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-scu,afaset-omo,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 644
Proto-Semitic: *ʔigār- 1, 2 ~ *gʷar- 3
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wall' 1, 'roof' 2, 'back of the house' 3
Akkadian: ʔigāru 1
Aramaic: Eg ʔgr 1
Arabic: ʔiǯǯār-, ʔinǯār- 2
Tigre: gǝray 3
Tigrai (Tigriñña): gʷaro 3 Kane 2251
Amharic: gʷaro 3
Gurage: gʷaro 3
Notes: Hardly from Sum.
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-arm,semet-ara,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-gur,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *gVrur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'enclosure'1, 'wall'2, 'place, yard' 3
Nefusa: a-grur 1, 2
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): a-gror 1
Adghaq (Tadghaq): a-grur 2
Tazerwalt: a-grur 3
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): agrur 1
Canarian: ta-goror 3
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-nfs,brbet-ahg,brbet-ish,brbet-tzr,brbet-qbl,brbet-gua,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: d_ry, d_rw, d_ry.t
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: d_ry.t 'dwelling' (gr), d_rw 'part of house' (MK), d_ry (Lit. MK) 'wall'?
Coptic: *d_oye
Bohairic: d_o/ōi
Sahidic: d_oie
Notes: According to Copt, -y reflects a suffix while *g- > Eg d_- before HS *o
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-cpt,egyet-bbb,egyet-sss,egyet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *gar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'village, town' 1, 'stone wall' 2, 'town-wall' 3, 'low wall or mount' 4, 'corn bin' 5
Hausa: gàrī 1, gárgárī́ 4
Mupun: geri 1
Bolewa: gáre 5 [Bn]
Dera=Kanakuru: gā́rú 3 [NmK]
Tangale: gar, kar 3[JgT]
Pa'a: gàru 2 [MS]
Notes: Forms like ga/ǝrV 'town' are < Hausa
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-gwn,wchet-bol,wchet-der,wchet-tng,wchet-paa,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *gaHur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'enclosure' 1, 'shed' 2, 'corral' 3
Mbara: gúrù 1 [TMba]
Munjuk: gúrù 3 [TMnj]
Logone: gáura 2 [LLog]
Notes: Cf also: Gude ngúúrà 'large sity'. [Hs] , Gis miz̃iŋ-gere 'yard', Gidar gelá 'hut', Mbara g̀írí-mi 'hut' and ECh *ger <'house' , Hausa gire 'place'. WCh Paa gàru 'stone-wall, Buli gùre 'brick' , Bolewa gáre 'corn bean' [Bn: 20], Dera gā́rú 'town wall' [NmK].
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mba,cchet-mnj,cchet-log,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *giHVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hut' 1, ' house' 2, 'compound' 3, 'village' 4, 'dwelling place' 5
Dangla: gèr 3, gɛ́ɛ-́gɛ̀r 1 [Fd]
Migama: gɛ́r 1 [JMig]
Jegu: géer 1, 4 [CLR: 203]
Bidiya: gḕrà 1, 5 [JBid]
Mubi: gìr 2 [Lk: 188]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-jeg,echet-bid,echet-mub,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: gaʔra, gaarʔa
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'yard'
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *guʔur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'house' 1, 'wall' 2
Somali: gu(u)ri 1
Oromo (Galla): goorroo 2
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-oro,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *goʔr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'shed'
Darasa (Gedeo): gooʔre
Burji (Bambala, Dashe): goore
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-dar,hecet-bmb,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *garVʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wall of the verandah'
Iraqw (Mbulu): gârʔai
Notes: Metathesis
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-irq,scuet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *gVHol-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'house'
Ometo: guolle
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-ome,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *gwVrV
Meaning: enclosure
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *gwV̆rV
Sino-Tibetan: *KʷĕrH
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *gwV̆rV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: enclosure
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *gʷVrV-n
Proto-Lezghian: *k:ʷer
Proto-West Caucasian: *gʷara
Notes: Although there are not enough data to reconstruct the first vowel, correspondences are rregular and the etymology seems quite satisfactory. Avar > Osset. (Dig.) goren 'fence' (see Abayev 1958, 524-525, comparing the Osset. form with Abkh.).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *gʷVrV-n
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: enclosure (for cattle)
Avar: gorén
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *k:ʷer
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 fence 2 boundary 3 place before the yard
Tabasaran: gur 1
Tsakhur: gor 2
Budukh: gir-iǯ 3
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. gur 'fenced boundary between fields'. Obl. base *k:ʷere- ~ *k:ʷera- (Tsakh. gora-). 3d class in Tsakh., 4th class in Bud.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-cak,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *gʷara
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 yard 2 fence 3 enclosure
Abkhaz: a-gʷára 1
Abaza: gʷara 2
Kabardian: gʷaran 3
Ubykh: gʷā́ʁa 1,3
Comments: PAT *gʷara; Ub. def. a-gʷā́ʁa. The Kab. word has a specific meaning: 'a place in court, divided into three parts: for the judge, for the accused and for the witnesses'.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *KʷĕrH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: enclosure, fence
Chinese: *g_ʷrenʔ enclosure for pigs (MCh. gʷén; the other reading, MCh. gʷǝ́n, is probably secondary).
Tibetan: skjor-ba enclosure, fence.
Kiranti: *khòr ( ~ x-)
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-kir,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: quān
Preclassic Old Chinese: khʷren
Classic Old Chinese: khwren
Western Han Chinese: khwrjan
Eastern Han Chinese: khwran
Early Postclassic Chinese: khwen
Middle Postclassic Chinese: khwen
Late Postclassic Chinese: khwen
Middle Chinese: khwen
English meaning : ring, circle [L.Zhou]
Russian meaning[s]: круг, окружность; кружок; петля (кружева, сети); обводить кружком; гасить кружком (марку); [juān] загнать, запереть (скотину); [juàn] загон, хлев; скотный двор
Comments: Also read *g(h)ʷrenʔ, MC gwén (with a variant reading gwǝ́n), Mand. juàn [Han] 'enclosure, stye'. Regular Sino-Viet. is khuyên.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 31
Four-angle index: 1891
Karlgren code: 0226 k
Vietnamese reading: khoen
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1119
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 山合三上阮群; B: 山合三平仙溪
ZIHUI: A: 0946 1995; B: 0946 1996
Beijing: A: ćyan 3; B: ćhyan 11
Jinan: A: ćyã 3; B: ćhyã 11
Xi'an: A: ćyã 3; B: ćhyã 11
Taiyuan: A: ćyɛ 3; B: ćhyɛ 1
Hankou: A: cuan 3; B: chuan 11
Chengdu: A: ćyan 3; B: ćhyan 11
Yangzhou: A: ćyî̃ 3; B: ćhyî̃ 11
Suzhou: A: ʒ́iö 32; B: ćhiö 11
Wenzhou: A: ʒ́y 32; B: ćhy 11
Changsha: A: ćyẽ 31; B: ćhyẽ 11
Shuangfeng: A: thuĩ 11; B: thuĩ 11
Nanchang: A: ćyɔn 31; B: ćhyɔn 11
Meixian: A: khian 11; B: khian 11
Guangzhou: A: kyn 32; B: hyn 11
Xiamen: A: khuan 11; B: khuan 12
Chaozhou: A: khueŋ 11; B: khou 11
Fuzhou: A: khuɔŋ 11; B: khuɔŋ 11
Shanghai: A: ćhyö 1; B: ćhyö 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: kyen 3; B: khyen 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *khòr ( ~ x-)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: fence
Tulung: khor barrier
Kaling: khwɔr fence, trap
Kulung: khar (Toba)
Comments: Toba 90 *khwar.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-kul,kiret-notes,

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