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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ṗalV
Meaning: many
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *pelǝ- (here also *pelǝ- 'full, fill')
Altaic: *p`ŭle ( ~ -i)
Uralic: *paljV
Kartvelian: *pr-
Dravidian: *pal-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *pǝl 'большой'
Comments: Cf. also PD *pol-i- (1426) [but maybe = PA *bi̯olo 'whole' 165]
References: МССНЯ 348; ND 1709 *[ṗ]olXE 'to fill', 1710 *ṗal̄yu 'much, superfluous' (hardly a justified division; on Drav. *pol- see above; + Sem. and Ang.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *pel-u-; *pel[e]-, *plē-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: many
Old Indian: purú- `much, many, abundant', f. pūrvī́, comp. prāyas adv. `for the most part, mostly'
Avestan: pouru- `viel'; comp. frāyah- `mehr'
Other Iranian: OPers paru `viel'
Old Greek: polǘ-, f. pollǟ́ `viel, zahlreich, häufig', polló- `id.'; comp. aeol., dor. plḗōn, pléon, att. pléi̯ōn
Germanic: *filu adv., *fil-u- adj.; *flaiz=
Latin: plūs (OLat plous) `mehr', plūrimus (OLat ploirume, plouruma) `meist'
Celtic: *hel-, *hlī- > OIr il `viel', lia `plus, plures'; OCymr liaus `multitudo', Cymr lliaws `multitudo'
Russ. meaning: много
References: WP II 63 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *filu, *filu-; *flaiz=
Meaning: very, much
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: filu n. sbs./adv. `very, much'
Old Norse: fjɔl n. `Menge'; fjɔl- `viel'; comp. fleiri `mehr'
Norwegian: fjöl- `viel-'
Old English: fela, feala, feola, feolu n.
Old Frisian: felo, fele, fel, fule, ful
Old Saxon: filu, filo `viel'
Middle Dutch: vēle
Dutch: veel
Old Franconian: vilo
Middle Low German: vēl(e)
Old High German: filu (8.Jh.) { filo } `viel'
Middle High German: vil(e)
German: viel adj., adv. 'viel, in fülle, in menge'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *p`ŭle ( ~ -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be left, surplus
Russian meaning: оставаться, излишек
Turkic: *üle-
Mongolian: *hüle-
Tungus-Manchu: *pule-
Comments: EAS 55, Владимирцов 187, Poppe 12, 111, Цинциус 1984, 60, Rozycki 82. A Western isogloss. Despite Doerfer MT 23, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *üle-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to divide, distribute, endow 2 lot, endowment
Russian meaning: 1 разделять, распределять, наделять 2 доля, надел
Old Turkic: üle-, üleš- 1, ülüg, ülüš 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üle-, üleš- 1, ülüg, ülüš 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: üleš- 1, üleš 2
Tatar: ü̆läš- 1, ü̆lĭš 2
Middle Turkic: ülü 2, üle- 1 (AH), üleš- 1, üleš 2 (Pav. C.), ülüš 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: uläš- 1, uĺuš 2
Uighur: üläš- 1, ülüš 2
Sary-Yughur: ülis- 2
Turkmen: üle, ülüš 2, üle-, üleš- 1
Khakassian: üle- 1, ülüs 2
Shor: üle-, üleš- 1, üleš, ülüš 2
Oyrat: ülü, ülöš 2, üle-, üleš-, ülöš- 1
Chuvash: valeś- 1
Tuva: üle- 1, üleš 2
Kirghiz: ülöš, ülüš 2
Kazakh: üles- 1, üles 2
Noghai: üles- 1, ülis 2
Bashkir: ü̆läš- 1, ü̆lü̆š 2
Balkar: üleš- 1, üleš, ülüš 2
Karaim: üleš-, ülüš- 1, ülüš 2
Karakalpak: üles- 1, üles 2
Kumyk: üleš- 1
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 627-629, EDT 127, 142, 153, 154, Егоров 46, Федотов 1, 98-99, VEWT 520, TMN 2, 120-121.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *hüle-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 surplus, to leave 2 more than 3 remain, get left
Russian meaning: 1 излишек, оставлять 2 больше чем 3 оставаться (на месте), отставать
Written Mongolian: üle- 1 (L 1004), ilegü, ilegüü, ülegüü 2 (L 405), ülde-, ülede- 3
Middle Mongolian: xule- (SH) 1, xüle'u (SH, HYt), holu (IM), hul(a)u (MA) 2
Khalkha: üle- 1, ilǖ 2, ülde- 3
Buriat: üle- 1, ülǖ 2, ülde- 3
Kalmuck: ülǖ, ilǖ 2, ülde 3
Ordos: üli-, üle- 1, ilǖ 2
Dongxian: fǝiliǝ- 1, śiliu, šiliu 2
Baoan: śilu, šilu, xelu (Tungren) 2
Dagur: xulu- 1, xulū 2 (Тод. Даг. 179), hulū 2, huledē 3 (MD 166), ilū 'many' <lit.? (MD 171)
Shary-Yoghur: helē- 1, hölǖ, χölǖ 2
Monguor: fulē- (SM 106) 1, fulǖ (SM 106), xoliu, šilǖ, xilǖ (Huzu)
Mogol: ZM ulou (16-1a)
Comments: KW 456, 457 MGCD 287, 409, 692.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *pule-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be left, surplus
Russian meaning: оставаться, излишек
Evenki: hele-, hule-
Even: hul-
Negidal: xule-
Literary Manchu: fulu
Ulcha: pule-
Orok: pule-
Nanai: pule-
Oroch: xule-
Udighe: xule-
Solon: ule-
Comments: ТМС 2, 364-365.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 706
Proto: *paljV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: thick; many
German meaning: dicht, dick; (FW ->) viel
Finnish: paljo, paljon 'viel' ( > Saam. N balljŏ 'much, hardly, L paljo 'sehr')
Estonian: palju 'viel, Menge; sehr'
Mari (Cheremis): pülä (KB) 'ziemlich viel, recht viel'
Mansi (Vogul): pɔ̄̈ĺ (KU), pāĺ (P So.) 'dicht, dicht belaubt' ?
Nenets (Yurak): paĺʔ (O) 'dick, dicht', paŕ (Nj.) 'stark strömende, seichte Stelle im Fluß, Stromschnelle' [?]
Enets (Yen): fod́e-me (Ch.), fod́e-ma 'dick werden'
Yukaghir parallels: pojō.i 'many, plenty', pojo.n 'many'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mar,uralet-man,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-yuk,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *pr-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Georgian: u-pro 'more', pri-ad- 'many'
Notes and references: В МССHЯ 348 основа сравнивается с ПИЕ *pǝlu 'много', *plē- 'больше', алт. *p`ölV 'избыток, лишнее', урал. *paljV 'много, густой' < ностр. *ṗalV.
kartet-prnum,kartet-gru,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *pàl-
Meaning : many
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *păl-
Proto-Telugu : *pal-
Proto-North Dravidian : *pal-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *păl-
Meaning : many
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : pala
Tamil meaning : many, several, diverse
Tamil derivates : palar many or several persons, assembly, society; pallār many persons; pan_mai plurality, multitude; pal many (OTa., only in cpds., e. g. pal-kālum many times, often, pan_-malai many hills; Zvelebil 1977)
Malayalam : pala
Malayalam meaning : many, several, various
Kannada : pala, palavu
Kannada meaning : much, many, several, various
Kannada derivates : palar, palambar, palavar several persons; palarme several times
Proto-Nilgiri : *pal[-ǐ] (?)
Notes : Unexplainable *-e- in PN.
Number in DED : 3987
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *pal[-ǐ] (?)
Meaning : a large number, many
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Toda : pes_
Number in DED : 3987
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *pal-
Meaning : many, several, various, different
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : palu
Additional forms : Also [1] paluvuru, [2] paluvuṇḍru many persons
Number in DED : 3987
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *pal-
Meaning : to be multiplied, be bred
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malto : palware
Additional forms : Also Malto palwatre to breed, rear
Number in DED : 3987
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : PVLV
Meaning : many, full
Eurasiatic : *ṗalV
Afroasiatic : Sem. *pVlħ-; Angas pil (?)
Sino-Caucasian : *bVɫV
Austric : PAN *pǝlpǝl 'fill'
Amerind (misc.) : *pala 'big' (R 56) [ + A]
African (misc.) : Bantu *-bụ̀d- 'become plentiful' (?).
Reference : ND 1709, 1710; Peiros 1989; Guthrie 224.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *bVɫV
Meaning: full
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *liǝ̆ŋ (p-)
Burushaski: *bil / *bir
Comments and references : SCE 107.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *liǝ̆ŋ (p-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: full
Chinese: *leŋ full, fill.
Tibetan: liŋ a whole piece ( > Lepcha liŋ to be abundant, to be superfluous ?)
Burmese: prańʔ be full, phrańʔ to fill, LB *pliŋʔ.
Kachin: phriŋ4 be full (cf. also tiŋ2 be complete, congest).
Lushai: KC *pliŋ ?.
Lepcha: bljăn
Kiranti: *blìŋ
Comments: PG *plIŋʔ get filled; BG: Dimasa phuluŋ fill in, Bodo buŋ be full; Nung biŋ; Kanauri böŋ; Miri büŋ; Digaro bloŋ. Sh. 410; Ben. 40; Mat. 167.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yíng
Preclassic Old Chinese: leŋ
Classic Old Chinese: leŋ
Western Han Chinese: leŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: źeŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: źeŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: jeŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: jeŋ
Middle Chinese: jeŋ
English meaning : to fill, satisfy
Russian meaning[s]: 1) полный; полностью; заполнить; 2) излишек; изобилие; переполнить; 3) доход, прибыль
Shuowen gloss: 滿器也.從皿**. [212]
Comments: For initial *l- cf. Min forms: Xiamen iã2, Chaozhou ieŋ2, Fuzhou iŋ2.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 108
Four-angle index: 691
Karlgren code: 0815 a-b
Vietnamese reading: doanh
Shijing occurrences: 3.1, 12.3_, 34.2_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 810
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 梗開三平清以
ZIHUI: 4134 2608
Beijing: iŋ 12
Jinan: iŋ 12
Xi'an: iŋ 12
Taiyuan: iŋ 1
Hankou: in 12
Chengdu: in 12
Yangzhou: ĩ 12
Suzhou: in 12
Wenzhou: ɦiaŋ 12
Changsha: yn 12
Shuangfeng: in 12
Nanchang: in 31
Meixian: jin 12
Guangzhou: jîŋ 12
Xiamen: îŋ 12 (lit.); iã 12
Chaozhou: ieŋ 12
Fuzhou: iŋ 12
Shanghai: iiŋ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: iǝŋ 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *blìŋ
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: fill
Sunwar: brī-ca get filled, brī-śo full
Tulung: lit- suffice, reach (an age) (?)
Kaling: lunä (liŋu) to fill
Limbu: lɔŋwā overflow of rainwater
Dumi: lennɨ
Kulung: laima 'suffice'; līma 'pour into, insert'
Comments: Perhaps 2 different roots, as seen from the distinction in Kulung.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-sun,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: le:Nmaʔ, -le:N-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt.
Meaning: pour (fluid), add (fluid)
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: lennɨ
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: vt-2a lend/len-lents/les
Meaning: move, spill (liquid)
Nepali: sārnu.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: laima
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi-6 [1: lai- 2: lai- 3: laiy- 4: lan- 5: la:-]
Meaning: be enough, have enough, suffice
Nepali: pugnu.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *bil / *bir
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: full
Hunza: bil, bir
Nagar: bil, bir
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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