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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *gim-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: земля
English meaning: earth
Megrel: gim-e, gǝm-e
Megrel meaning (Rus.): внизу
Megrel meaning (Eng.): below
Svan: gim
Notes and references: EWK 85-86.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-meg,kartet-mgmean,kartet-emgmean,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *kUmV
Meaning: sand, thin snow
Altaic: *ki̯umo ( ~ -i̯o-)
Uralic: *kumV
Kartvelian: ? *gim-
Dravidian: Tam.-Tulu *gum- 'mud' (SDR 1524)
References: МССНЯ 362; ND 1066a *ḲumV 'sand' (part. Alt. + Ur. + ??Chad.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯umo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, dust
Russian meaning: песок, пыль
Turkic: *Kum
Mongolian: *kumaki
Tungus-Manchu: *küme
Comments: Poppe 68. A Western isogloss. Mong. cannot be explained as a Turk. loanword, despite TMN 3, 508-509, Щербак 1997, 143 (conversely, late Turkic forms like Oyr., Kaz. qumaq etc. are evidently < Mong.).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kum
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sand
Russian meaning: песок
Old Turkic: qum (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qum (MK)
Turkish: kum
Tatar: qom
Middle Turkic: qum (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: qum
Uighur: qum
Sary-Yughur: qum, qom
Azerbaidzhan: Gum
Turkmen: Gum
Khakassian: xum
Shor: qum
Oyrat: qum
Chuvash: xъʷm
Yakut: kumax
Dolgan: kumak
Tuva: qum
Tofalar: xum
Kirghiz: qum
Kazakh: qu_m
Noghai: qum
Bashkir: qom
Balkar: qum
Gagauz: qum
Karaim: qum
Karakalpak: qum
Salar: Gum
Comments: VEWT 299, EDT 625, Лексика 102, ЭСТЯ 6, 133-134, Stachowski 160. Turk. > WMong. qum, Kalm. xum 'sand' (KW 196; TMN 3, 508), Hung. homok (Gombocz 1912).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kumaki
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: earth; sand grains
Russian meaning: земля, пыль, тонкий песок
Written Mongolian: qumaɣ, qumaki (L 985)
Middle Mongolian: qumaqi (Hp), qumaki (HY 3), qomaq (Lig. VMI), qomaqi (MA)
Khalkha: xumag, xumxi
Buriat: xumxi
Kalmuck: xumǝg (КРС)
Ordos: xumuχi(n), xumiχi(n)
Monguor: xumoG 'poussière, pierres etc. mêlées aux grains qu'on vient de battre' (SM 182)
Comments: Mong. > Nan. gumuxĩ 'dust'.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *küme
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 shore, sand beach 2 hill, elevation 3 wild pig's lair
Russian meaning: 1 морской берег, пляж 2 холм, возвышенность 3 лежбище кабана
Even: kimewun 1
Nanai: kumčien 2 (Он.), (Bik.) kum'i 3 (Сем)
Oroch: kīma 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 394-395.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 400
Proto: *kumV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: thin snow
German meaning: dünner Schnee
Udmurt (Votyak): ki̮m (G) 'dünner, neugefallener Schnee', ki̮m (M) 'Reif'
Hungarian: hó (acc. havat) 'Schnee'
Nenets (Yurak): χawʔ 'auf weichem Schnee liegender dünner harter Schnee'
Kamass: kamo 'Schneekruste'
Sammalahti's version: FU *kumi
Yukaghir parallels: ku 'Schnee' [?]
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-udm,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-kam,uralet-samm2,uralet-yuk,

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