Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *k'erd-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: heart; core, middle
Hittite: ker / kard- n. 'Herz', Pal. karti, Lyk. B kride-si, A kerɵɵi (Tischler 556 ff)
Old Indian: hr̥d n., gen. hr̥dáḥ `heart'
Avestan: zǝrǝdā 'Herz'
Armenian: sirt, instr. srtiv `Herz'
Old Greek: kardíǟ, ep. kradíā f. `Herz; Seele, Geist; der obere Magenmund; Kernholz'+ ep. kǟ̂r, Pind., B., Trag. kéar, dat. kǟ̂ri, adv. kǟróthi n. `Herz'
Slavic: *sьrdьce; *serdъ, *serdā
Baltic: *čer̂d-i- c., *čerd-iā̃ (2) f., *čir̂d-i- (*čir̂d-) (2) c., *čir̂d-a- c., *čir̃d- vb. intr.
Germanic: *xirt-an- n., *xirt-ōn- f.
Latin: cor, gen. cordis n. `Herz'
Celtic: OIr cride n., Ir croidue `Herz'; Cymr craidd `Herz, Mittelpunkt',Bret kreiz `Mitte'
Russ. meaning: сердце; сердцевина, середина
References: WP I 423 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Vasmer's dictionary :

Search within this database
Word: се́рдце,
Near etymology: мн. сердца́, диал. се́реце, донск. (Миртов), укр. се́рце, блр. се́рце, др.-русск. сьрдьце, ст.-слав. сръдьце καρδία (Супр.), болг. сърдце́, сербохорв. ср̏це, словен. srсе̣̑, чеш., слвц. srdce, др.-польск. siеrсе, польск., н.-луж. sеrсе.
Further etymology: Праслав. *sьrdьko, как и *sъlnьko (см. со́лнце), содержит уменьш. -kо-. Древнее корневое имя сохраняется в ст.-слав. милосръдъ οἰκτίρμων, тѩжькосръдъ βαρυκάρδιος, др.-польск. miɫosirdy "милосердный". Ср. также сердобо́льный (Френкель, ZfslPh 13, 211; Траутман, ВSW 302; Мейе, Ét. 343; Брандт, РФВ 24, 150; Зубатый, LF 25, 239). Первонач. *sьrd-/*sьrdь род- ственно лит. širdìs ж. "сердце", лтш. sir̂ds "сердце, мужество, гнев", др.-прусск. sеуr "сердце" (*sērd-), греч. κῆρ ср. р. (*k̂ērd-), арм. sirt, гот. haírtô- ср. р. "сердце", греч. καρδία, κραδίη ж., лат. соr, род. п. cordis ср. р., др.-ирл. cride (*ḱerdi̯o-), хетт. kard (kardi-) ср. р. "сердце" (Фридрих, Неth. Wb. 103), с др. ступенью чередования гласных: середа́ (Траутман, там же; Буга, РФВ 75, 143 и сл.; Мейе, Baudouinowi dе Соurtеnау 2, М.--Э. 3, 844; Педерсен, Еt. lit. 57; Hitt. 41; Шпехт 74; Мейе--Эрну 254; Готьо, РФВ 48, 404 и сл. Ср. также др.-инд. hŕ̥d-, hŕ̥dауаm ср. р. "сердце", авест. zǝrǝd-, относительно которых см. Мейе, МSL 18, 60; Хаверс 118; Вальде--Гофм. 1, 271 и сл.
Pages: 3,605-606
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *čer̂d-i- c., *čerd-iā̃ (2) f., *čir̂d-i- (*čir̂d-) (2) c., *čir̂d-a- c., *čir̃d- vb. intr.
Meaning: heart, middle
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: širdès gen., šìrdes pl., širdų̃ pl. gen.
Lithuanian: širdì-s f., acc. šìrdį `Herz, Zentrum der Organe; Kern, Gesinnung, Gefühl, Wunsch, Verlangen; Herz im Kartenspiel; Mark von Bäumen, Kernholz'; pl. t. širdaĩ, gen. -ų̃ `Ärger, Wut, Zank, Streit'; šir̃sti `sich über imd. ärgern, wütend sein, zürnen'; ostlit. šerdì-s `Mark, Kern im Holz, Inneres , medula arboris; Herz (der Glocke), Zentrum', šérdi-s, šerdē̃ `id.'
Lettish: sir̂ds (g. -s) f., dial. sirde `Herz; Mut, Zorn', ser̂de f. `Mark, Kern im Holz; Inneres von Pflanzen, Früchten, Obst; Mitte, Zentrum'
Old Prussian: seyr `Herz' V. 124; { sīras, acc. sīran id. }
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Germanic: *xirtan, *xirtōn
Meaning: heart
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: hɛrtō n. (n) `heart'
Old Norse: hjarta n. `Herz'
Norwegian: hjarta
Swedish: hjärta
Danish: hjerte
Old English: heorte, -an f. `heart'
English: heart
Old Frisian: herte, hirte f.
Old Saxon: herta n.
Middle Dutch: herte, harte n., f.
Dutch: hart n.
Old Franconian: herta n.
Old High German: herza n. (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: hërz(e) wk. n. 'herz'
German: Herz n.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

Search within this database


Pokorny's dictionary :

Search within this database
Number: 934
Root: (k̂ered-:) k̂erd-, k̂ērd-, k̂r̥d-, k̂red-
English meaning: heart
German meaning: `Herz'
Material: Arm. sirt, Instr. srti-v `Herz' (*k̂ērdi-);

    gr. καρδίᾱ (att.), κραδίη (hom.), κάρζα (lesb.), κορίζᾱ (kypr.) `Herz; Magen;Mark bei Pflanzen' (*k̂r̥d(i̯)a), poet. κη̃ρ, -ος n. `Herz' (*k̂ērd); κέαρ Neubildung nach ἔαρ : ἦρος;

    lat. cor (aus *cord), cordis `Herz', con-cors, -dis `einträchtig', dis-cors `zwieträchtig';

    air. cride n., nir. croidhe `Herz, Mitte', cymr. craidd `Mittelpunkt', corn. cre(y)s, bret. kreiz `Mitte' (das Ir. läßt sich aus *k̂redi̯om oder *k̂r̥di̯om erklären, vorausgesetzt, daß die dunkle Färbung der anlaut. Konsonanz Erklärung findet (nach crú `Blut'?); die brit. Formen verlangen dagegen eine Grundform *k̂redi̯om);

    got. haírto, ahd. herza, ags. heorte, anord. hjarta n. `Herz' (*k̂ē̆rd-on-);

    lit. širdìs f. (älter m.), Akk. šìrdį `Herz, Kern, Mark von Bäumen'; lett. sir̂ds f. (älter m.) `Herz' und ser̂de f. `Mark, Kern im Holze' (Grundformen *šérd- und šir̃d-, vgl. den altenGen. Sg. širdés und Gen. Pl. širdų́, die auf idg. *k̂erdés und *k̂erdṓm beruhen; siehe Trautmann Bsl. Wb. 302); apr. seyr n. (*kērd), zum m. o-St. erweitert sīras, Akk. sīran `Herz';

    akl. srъdьce, serb. sȑce `Herz'; hochstufig aksl. srěda `Mitte' (*serda), russ. seredá ds.;

    hitt. ka-ra-az (karts) `Herz', Gen. kar-di-aš (Pedersen Hitt. 41).

    Nicht hierher (sondern zu mir. cretair `Reliquie') idg. k̂red-dhē- `Zauberkraft worauf setzen, glauben, vertrauen' in ai. śrád-dadhāti `vertraut, glaubt' (getrennt noch z. B. śrád asmāi dhatta `glaubet an ihn!'), śrad-dhā `Vertrauen', av. zrazdā- `glauben' (aus *srazdā- durch volksetym. Anlehnung an zǝrǝd- `Herz');

    lat. crēdō `glaube' (*krezdō-, idg. *k̂red-dhē-);

    air. cretim `glaube', cymr. credaf ds. (nicht *crethaf, daher erst spät zur festen Zusammensetzung geworden), corn. crežy, mbret. cridiff, nbret. credi `glauben'; dazu air.cretar, mcymr. creir, cymr. crair (*kredrā) `Reliquie'.

    Reimwort zu k̂er(e)d- ist ĝhērd-, ĝhr̥d-, nur arisch, in ai. hr̥d `Herz', usw.

References: WP. I 423 f, WH. I 272 f., 286 f., 857, 858; Vendryes RC 40, 436.
Pages: 579-580
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *ḳerdV
Meaning: heart, breast
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *k'erd-
Kartvelian: *mḳerd-
Eskimo-Aleut: *qatǝɣ
References: МССНЯ 364, ОСНЯ 1, 324-325; ND 1174 *ḳärdV 'breast, chest' (with very questionnable SH parallels).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-kart,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Kartvelian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kartvelian: *mḳerd-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: грудь
English meaning: breast
Georgian: mḳerd-
Megrel: ḳǝdǝr-, ḳidir-
Svan: mǝč̣wed-, muč̣od-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 135-136, EWK 241. В ОСНЯ 1, 324-325 сопоставляется с ПИЕ *ḱerd- 'сердце' < ностр. *ḳErdV. Предположение о заимствовании картв. < ПИЕ (Климов 1994, 57-59) ни на чем не основано; картвельская и индоевропейская праформы прекрасно соответствуют друг другу (см. Иллич-Свитыч...), вопреки утверждению Климова.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

Search within this database


Eskimo etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Eskimo: *qatǝɣ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: breast, chest
Russian meaning: грудь, грудная часть
Proto-Yupik: *qatǝɣ
Proto-Inupik: *qatǝɣ
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 290
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

Search within this database


Yupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yupik: *qatǝɣ
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: breast 1, chest 2
Russian Meaning: грудь 1, грудная клетка 2
Sirenik: //qatǝ (?) 1, 2 [Vakh. from Rub.]
Chaplino: //qatǝk 'bird's breast'
Naukan: qátǝk 1, qatǝ́ɣuk 2
Chugach (AAY): qatǝk 1, qat[ɣ]aq 2
Koniag (AAY): qataq 2
Central Alaskan Yupik: qatǝk, qatɣaq 2
Nunivak (Peripheral): qatiɣąt pl. 1, 2
PAME: *qatǝ-ɣ
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-chug,yupet-koni,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-pame,

Search within this database


Inupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Inupik: *qạtǝ̣ɣ
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: breast of bird 1, chest 2, breast 3, upper part of body 4
Russian meaning: грудка птицы 1, грудная часть 2, грудь 3, верхняя часть тела 4
Seward Peninsula Inupik: qatik 1, qatiɣak 2
SPI Dialects: Imaq qátɨq 'hump', W, KI qatik* (qattąk, qatkit) 'breastbone and ribs'
North Alaskan Inupik: qatɨk 1, qatiɣā̆k, qatikkak 2 (of animal), 3 (of human)
Western Canadian Inupik: qatiɣak 4
Eastern Canadian Inupik: qatiɣaq 4, qattāq 'sternum or brisket, center bone of bird's chest'
Greenlandic Inupik: qatik (qatik*) 1, ? qatiɣak 'back'
GRI Dialects: ? EG qaliŋaq 'back'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 290
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-wci,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : KVRTV
Meaning : breast
Eurasiatic : *ḳerdV
Afroasiatic : *ḳard- ~ *garṭ-
Sino-Caucasian : *(x)qVdV ( = *(x)qV(r)dV)
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kódò 'heart', 'breastbone'.
Reference : ND 1174.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳard- ~ *garṭ-
Meaning: neck
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ḳard- 'neck, throat'
Berber: *-ḳǝrd- ~ (?) *-gǝrḍ- 'lower neck'
Central Chadic: *gurḍ- 'neck'
Notes: Note *gVrḍ- in Brb and CCh (shift of emphatization?). Cf. WCh *ḳirʒ- 'chest' (Hs ḳirǯi, pl. ḳiraza; Gwan giriǯi); cf. also Om *ḳirṭ- (Kachama qirṭa 'mammella' Con Ross) in Bla Review 503. Cf. *gʷar(i)d- 'neck, throat' (207).
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-cch,afaset-notes,

Search within this database


Semitic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 2134
Proto-Semitic: *ḳard-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: neck, throat
Arabic: ḳard- 'cou' [BK 2 709], ḳurdūd- 'dos (toute la largeur du dos chez l'homme depuit les fesses jusqu'aux épaules)' [ibid. 710], ḳurdūdat- 'le haut du dos' [ibid.].

    Cf. ḳirdiʕat- 'cou' [ibid.] with an unexplained -ʕ

Mehri: ḳard 'voice; throat' [JM 235]
Jibbali: ḳɛrd 'throat' [JJ 148]
Harsusi: ḳard 'throat' [JH 77]
Soqotri: ḳǝyrɔd (pl.) 'throat' (sing. ḳár) [JJ 148]; see also [SSL LS 1463]
Notes: Scarcely attested in ARB and MSA only. Less likely an ARB loan in MSA in view of some meaning differences; cf. also a developed series of derived verbal forms in MSA, such as JIB ḳɔ́rɔ́d 'to catch, cut so's throat', ḳɔ́trǝd 'to be strangled; to have a sore throat' [JJ 148].

    Cf. *gar(i)d-, No.

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,semet-notes,

Search within this database


Berber etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Berber: *-ḳǝrd- ~ (?) *-gǝrḍ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'lower neck'
Ayr: ti-ɣǝrd-en 'partie du corps située en-dessous du cou et entre les deux omoplates' Aloj 71
Tawllemmet: ti-ɣǝrd-en
Semlal: Cf. ammgǝrḍ 'cou' Dest 77
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): Cf. a-ḡʷǝrḍ 'encolure, col', amḡǝrḍ 'cou, nuque' Dallet 273
Notes: *-gǝrḍ- <*-ḳVrd-, with a shift of emphatization?
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ayr,brbet-twl,brbet-sml,brbet-qbl,brbet-notes,

Search within this database


Central Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-CChadic: *gurḍ- (?)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'neck'
Mbara: gúrḍòy [TMba]
Notes: Shift of emphatization?
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mba,cchet-notes,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *qVdV́ ( ~ *xq-)
Meaning: breast
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *qVdV ( ~ χ:-)
Yenisseian: *qot- (~χ-)
Burushaski: *-́qat
Comments and references : MCGD 9. [In Bur. also Yas. qétu-qétu, Hun. qíqit 'tickling': cf. Ing. ʁadaʁilg(aš), Tab. ʁIudʁIli, Lak. ʁIidi, treated under *gälV].
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

Search within this database


North Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North Caucasian: *qVdV ( ~ χ:-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brisket
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *(mV)qVdV ( ~ χ)
Proto-Tsezian: *χade ( ~ ʁ:-,-ɔ-)
Notes: An Avar-Tsez. isogloss. Somewhat dubious, although the similarity of Av. -hed and Bezht. ʁade 'brisket' can hardly be coincidental (while at the same time it is impossible to keep the Avar form away from PA *niqi 'breast' - quite a different root, see *mōnqī).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

Search within this database


Avar-Andian etymology :

Search within this database
Protoform: *(mV)qVdV ( ~ χ)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brisket
Avar: mehéd
Comments: The Avar form is actually a contamination of two different roots (see PNC *mōnqī 'breast').
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-comment,

Search within this database


Tsezian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tsezian: *χade ( ~ ʁ:-,-ɔ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brisket
Bezhta: ʁade
Comments: Attested only in Bezht., with a probable Avar parallel.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

Search within this database


Yenisseian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yenisseian: *qot- (~χ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: in front, before
Ket: qɔta6, Kur. qɔtɛ6 "(to the) front"; qōtkǝ1 "in front of, before", Kur. qōtkɛ1 id.
Yug: xɔtéj "(to the) front"; xotkej1 "in front of, before"
Arin: únkut (М., Сл., Кл.,) "in front of" (Дульз. únqut)
Comments: ССЕ 263-264. Werner 2, 118-119.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

Search within this database


Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *-́qat
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: armpit
Yasin: -́qetaraŋ
Hunza: -́qat
Nagar: -́qat
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
42013313772
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov