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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *aweg-, -k-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to increase
Tokharian: A ok-, B auk- (PT *auk-) 'grow, increase', B auks- 'sprout, grow up', A okäm, B auki (PT *auk(ä)mi̯ä(n)) n. 'increase' (Adams 130-131)
Old Indian: ugrá-, comp. ójīyas- `powerful, mighty', ójas- n. `strength, power'; vákṣaṇa- `strengthening', vakṣayati `to make grow', ukṣáti, -te `to be strong'
Avestan: ugra-, comp. aoǰyah`stark, kräftig', aoǰah-, aogah-, aogarǝ `Kraft, Stärke'; vaxšaiti `lässt wachsen', uxšyeiti `wächst'
Old Greek: aú̯ksō, au̯ksánō; aéksō `mehren fördern; wachsen'
Baltic: *aûg- (prs. aûg-a-) (1) vb., *aûg-š-t-a- (2) adj.; *aûg- (prs. aûg-a-) (1) vb., *aûg-š-t-a- (2) adj.; *aûk-l-iā̃ f., *aûk-l-ē̂- (2?) vb., *ūk-aw-im-a- c., *uk-a-
Germanic: *auk-a- vb., *auk-ia- vb., *auk-an- m.; *wōk-r-a- m., -ō f.; *wax-s-a-, *wax-s-ia- vb.; *áux-i-m-a-, *áux-u-m-a- adj.
Latin: augeō, -ēre -xī, -ctum `wachsen machen, vergrössern, vermehren', auctor, -ōr is m.`Förderer, Veranlasser, Urheber, Gewährsmann'; augmen, augmentum `Zuwachs', augustus `geweiht, heilig, erhaben', auxilium `Hilfe'
Other Italic: Umbr uhtur `auctor'
Russ. meaning: увеличивать
References: WP I 22 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *aûg- (prs. aûg-a-) (1) vb., *aûg-š-t-a- (2) adj. || *aûk-l-ā̂, -iā̃ f. (1), *aûk-l-ē̂- (1) vb., *ūk-aw-im-a- c., *uk-a-
Meaning: grow
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: áugti (áuga) `wachsen, grösser werden', áugala-s, augesti-s 'Wuchs, Grösse, Statur', aũgala-s 'Gewächs, Pflanze', auglī̃-s 'Gewächs, Tumor', augèsnis 'älter', ū̃gi-s 'Wuchs', ū̃gi-s, ū̃gli-s 'Schoss, Schössling, Zweig', ūgìnti 'aufziehen', augìnti 'ds.'; áukšta- `hoch'; áuklēti-žmṓnēs `Erwachsene', aukúoju `hebe ein Kind auf und nieder', ūkavimas `Schaukeln, Schwanken', áuklē `Kinderwärterin'
Lettish: aûgt (-gu, -gu) 'wachsen, grösser werden, zunehmen; durch Wachsen entstehen', aûglis 'Frucht; Leibesfrucht'; aûgsts 'hoch hochgestellt, vornehm' || aũklêt `(ein Kind) warten, auf den Händen tragen und schaukeln', aũkle, aũkla, aũklis 'Kinderwärterin'
Old Prussian: auginnons 'gezogen', poaugints 'auferzogen'; aucktimiskan 'Obrigkeit', aucktairikijskan 'ds.', auctimmiein 'Obersten'; ucka- praef. zur Bildung des Superlativs
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *aukan- vb., *aukian- vb., *aukēn, *wōkra-z, -ō; *waxsan-, *waxsian- vb.; *áuxima-, *áuxuma-
Meaning: increase
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: aukan st. `increase'; wahsjan st. `grow'; *wōkr-s `interest'; comp. auhuma adj. `higher', auhumist `höchster',
Old Norse: auka red. `vermehren, vergrössern, übertreffen, erzeugen'; vaxa st. `wachsen', vexa wk. `wachsen machen'
Norwegian: auka; vaksa
Old Swedish: öka, ökia; växa; OGutn auka
Swedish: öka; växa
Old Danish: ökä, ögä
Danish: öge; vokse
Old English: { weaxan }; ēacan (ēoc, ēocon; ēacen) `to be increased, augmented, enlarged, indued', īcan (īecan, īcean, ǖhte) (īhte/īkte) `eke, increase, add to, augmnnt', ēaca, -an `addition, eeking, increase, usury, advantage'; wōcor, -e f. `increase, fruit, offspring'; ǖmost `highest'
English: wax
Old Frisian: wōker `interest'; waxa
Old Saxon: ōkian `vermehren'; wahsan
Middle Dutch: woeker m. `woejer, interest'; wassen (wies); ōken `vermeenderen'
Dutch: woeker m.; wassen
Old Franconian: wahson
Middle Low German: wassen; wōker `rente, woeker'
Old High German: ouhhōn `vermehren'; wahsan (8.Jh.); wuohhar m., n. `Ertrag des Bodens, Leibesfrucht, Nachkommenschaft, Gewinn, Zins, Wucher' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: ouchen wk. refl. 'sich vermeheren, vergrössern'; wahsen st. 'wachsen, auf-, erwachsen'; wuocher st. m., n. 'ertrag, frucht; leibesfrucht, kind, nachkommenschaft; zuchtvieh, zuchstier'
German: wachsen; Wuchs m.; Wucher m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 139
Root: au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug-
English meaning: to magnify, increase
German meaning: `vermehren, zunehmen'
General comments: mit s-Formans au̯ek-s-, auk-s-, u̯ek-s-, uk-s-
Material: Ai. ugrá- `gewaltig' (Komp. Sup. ṓjīyas-, ṓjiṣ̌ṭha- `der kraftigere, kräftigste') = av. ugra- `stark, kräftig' (Komp. Sup. aojyah-, aojišta-).

    lat. augeō, -ēre `vermehren', auctor (= umbr. uhtur) `Urheber usw.', auctiō `Versteigerung', augmen(tum) `Zuwachs' (= lit. augmuõ `Wachstum', ai. ōjmán- m. `Kraft'), augur `Weissager' aus *augos `Vermehrung' (WH. I 83);

    got. aukan (Prät. aíauk), auknan `sich mehren', ana-, bi-aukan `hinzufügen', ahd. ouhhōn, as. ōkian `vermehren', ags. ēacian `zunehmen', īecan `mehren', anord. auka (Prät. jōk und aukađa) `vermehren', st. Partiz. ags. ēacen, as. ōkan `vermehrt, schwanger';

    lit. áugu, áugti (dehnstufig) `wachse', auginù, -ìnti `wachsen lassen, erziehen', ablautend pa-ūgė́ti `heranwachsen', ũgis `Wuchs, Jahreswuchs', lett. aûdzêt, aûdzinât `aufziehen', apr. auginnons Part. Perf. Akt. `gezogen', alett. aukts `hoch' = lat. auctus, lett. aũgt `wachsen', wie auch thrak. Αὐθί-παρος `Hohenfurt', apr. Aucti-garbin, aucktai-rikijskan `Obrigkeit', aucktimmien `Vorsteher', woneben mit dem s des -es-St. (s. unten) lit. áukštas, lett. aûksts `hoch' (: lat. augustus `erhaben'), apr. auck-timmiskan f. (Akk.) `Obrigkeit', apr. aūgus `geizig' (als `mehrend'), lit. áugumas, lett. aûgums `Wachstum';

    es-St. ai. ṓjas- n. `Kraft, Stärke', av. aojah-, aogah- (ebenso r-St. aogarǝ) `Kraft, Stärke', lat. augustus s. oben (ebenso lit. usw. áukštas); dazu mit s im Verbum:

    ai. vákṣaṇa-m `Stärkung', vakṣáyati `läßt wachsen', av. vaxšaiti `läßt wachsen', woneben mit schwächster Wzstufe ai. úkṣati `erstarkt' (Perf. vavákṣa), av. uxšyeiti `wächst'; got. wahsjan `wachsen' (= ai. vakṣayati, idg. Iter.-Kaus. *u̯okséi̯ō; damit verband sich das ō-stufige Perf. wōhs zum Paradigma; s. Brugmann IF. 32, 180, 189);

    gr. ἀ()έξω `mehre', ἀέξομαι `wachse'; αὔξω, αὐξάνω `vermehre, `steigere', lat. auxilium `Hilfe' (ursprüngl. Pl. -iа `Verstärkungen, Hilfstruppen', N. Pl. eines auxilis `zur Verstärkung dienlich');

    anord. vaxa, vexa `wachsen', ahd. wahsan, nhd. wachsen, wuchs, wozu z. B. got. wahstus `Wachstum, Wuchs, Leibesgröße', ahd. wa(h)smo `Wachstum' u. dgl.; toch. A oksiš `wächst', A okšu, В aukšu `alt'; nach Van Windekens Lexique 79 auch hierher AB oko `Frucht', A okar `Pflanze'; dagegen Pedersen Tochar. 227.

    Hierher mit Dehnstufe u̯ōg-: got. wōkrs m. `Zins', ags. wōcor f. `Nachkommenschaft, Zins' (vgl. gr. τόκος in denselben Bedeutungen), ahd. wuohhar m. `Ertrag des Bodens, Leibesfrucht, Nachkommenschaft, Gewinn, Zins, Wucher' (dazu steir. wiech `ausgiebig, üppig, blätterreich' als Umlaut? Etwas anders Schroeder Abl. 57 f.), da in der nicht mit s erweiterten Wzf. au̯eg- die Stufe u̯eg- in air. fēr, cymr. gwair `Gras' belegt ist; wohl mit derselben Ablautstufe ai. vā́ja-ḥ `Kraft, Gut, Reichtum, Wettpreis, Wettlauf, ursprüngl. `rasche, erfolgreiche Energie', Oldenberg ZdMG. 50, 443 ff.

References: WP. I 22 f., WH. I 82 f., 850, Feist 67, 541, 572, Pedersen Tochar. 227.
Pages: 84-85
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ŋwVkV
Meaning: rise
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *au̯eg-
Altaic: *ŋi̯ṑk`è ( ~ -k-)
Dravidian: *mUg-
Eskimo-Aleut: *ńǝkuv-, *ńǝvkǝ-
References: For Drav. cf. alternatively *mVKV; while here, perhaps, Drav. *neg- 'to fly, rise' (a doublet of *eg-).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŋi̯ṑk`è ( ~ -k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rise, elevation
Russian meaning: подниматься, возвышение
Turkic: *jok-
Tungus-Manchu: *ŋōKe ~ *ŋēKu
Japanese: *ǝ̀kǝ̀-
Comments: The reconstruction of the diphthong in this root is based on PT *j-: one should suppose an early development *ŋi̯ō- > *jo- in Turkic (which explains the vocalic reflex). Cf. *i̯úgu 'up, above' (which could also influence the Turkic form due to mutual influence of synonymous *jüg- and *jok-).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 up, above 2 hill, elevation
Russian meaning: 1 вверх, наверх 2 возвышенность, подъем
Old Turkic: joqaru 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: joqaru 1, joq 2 (MK)
Turkish: jukarɨ 1, jokuš 2
Tatar: juɣarɨ 1
Middle Turkic: joqaru (AH), juqar (Pav. C.) 1, joquš (AH, Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: juqɔri 1
Uighur: juqari 1
Azerbaidzhan: juxarɨ, dial. uxarɨ 1, joxuš 2
Turkmen: joqarɨ 1
Khakassian: čoɣar 1
Halaj: juqqar 1
Yakut: soɣoru, soɣurū 'South; centre'
Dolgan: sogurū 'South'
Kirghiz: ǯoɣor(u) 1
Kazakh: žoɣarɨ 1
Bashkir: juɣarɨ 1
Balkar: oɣarɨ 1
Gagauz: juqar(ɨ) 1
Karaim: joɣarɨ 1, joquš, joqɨš 2
Karakalpak: žoqarɨ 1
Comments: EDT 896, 906, ЭСТЯ 4, 213-214, 215, Stachowski 211.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ŋōKe ~ *ŋēKu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hill, high shore
Russian meaning: гора, высокий берег
Evenki: ŋēke, ŋōke, ŋēku
Comments: ТМС 1, 667. Isolated in Evk., but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ǝ̀kǝ̀-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rise
Russian meaning: подниматься
Old Japanese: oku-
Middle Japanese: òkù-
Tokyo: okí-
Kyoto: òkì-
Kagoshima: òkì-
Comments: JLTT 740. Modern dialects point rather to *ǝ̀kǝ́-; *-ǝ- is reconstructed on the basis of the caus. OJ oko-s-.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *mUg-
Meaning : top
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *mUg-
Proto-Telugu : *mog-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *mUg-
Meaning : top; summit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : mukaṭu
Tamil meaning : top, highest part, ridge of a roof, hump of a camel, platform
Tamil derivates : mōṭu height, hill, eminence, top of a house, etc.; (?) mucci crown of the head, tuft of hair on the head, crest
Malayalam : mukaṭu
Malayalam meaning : the head-end of a cloth
Malayalam derivates : mukaḷ top, summit, ridge, roof
Kannada : mogaḍu, mogaḷu, magil
Kannada meaning : ridge of roof
Tulu : mugili
Tulu meaning : turret, top as of a temple
Tulu derivates : mōḍu hill
Proto-Nilgiri : *mokḷ
Notes : If Tamil mucci belongs here, the original vowel is *-u-. Tulu mōḍu is obviously a borrowing from Tamil.
Number in DED : 4888
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *mogǝḷ
Meaning : ridge of roof
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : moyḷ
Toda : muxuḷ
Number in DED : 4888
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *mog-
Meaning : ridge of roof
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : mogaḍu
Inscriptional Telugu : mōru "peak"
Additional forms : Also mōḍu raised or high ground
Number in DED : 4888
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_inscr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *ńǝkuv-, *ńǝvkǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to stand (up)
Russian meaning: стоять, вставать
Proto-Yupik: *ńǝkuv- (-Гa-), *ńǝvkǝ-
Proto-Inupik: *nǝkuv- (-ʁa-, -raʁ-)
Comments: See *(Nǝ)k[r]uʁa- 'tree, spruce tree'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 225
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *ńǝkuv- (-Гa-), *ńǝvkǝ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to stand (up) 1, to build up 2
Russian Meaning: стоять, вставать 1, строить 2
Sirenik: jǝ̆fkǝ́cǝχ (aor. 3sg.), jǝ̆fkǝ́ɣǝcǝ́qǝχtǝ́χ dur. 1, jǝ̆fkǝ́tǝ̆qǝ̄́χtǝʁá 2
Chaplino: nǝkǝ́vaquq, nǝkǝ́vʁāquq dur. 1, nǝkǝ́ftaqā 2
Naukan: nukúvaquq 1, nukúftāquq 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: nǝku[ɣ]a- dur. 1
Chugach (AAY): PWS nǝk[ɣ]u- 1
Central Alaskan Yupik: nǝkfa- dur. 1
Nunivak (Peripheral): nǝk(ǝ)vǝ- 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 225
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chug,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *nǝ̊kụv-, *j- (-ʁa-, -raʁ-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to stand (up) 1, to stand on tiptoe 2
Russian meaning: стоять, вставать 1, стоять на цыпочках 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: nuɣuvit-, nuɣupit- 1, juɣuvluɣitāq- 2
SPI Dialects: Imaq nuɣúvɨnɨq 'the act of standing up', W nüɣuvittoq* 1, KI jɨfkɨraʁ- 'to jump up from kneeling position' [Jen.]
NAI Dialects: B nikuvaun* 'sth. standing', Qaw nikivit- 1, nikivrāq- 2
Western Canadian Inupik: nikuvjā̆q- 2
WCI Dialects: M nikuvittoq* 1, Sig nikuvit- 1, Car? nikuvraqtuq- 2 [Schn.]
Eastern Canadian Inupik: nikuvik- 1, nikujjā(q)- 2
Greenlandic Inupik: nikuit- (nikuípoq*) 1, nikuʁfa- 'to be upright'
GRI Dialects: EG niɣiqqa- 'to be upright', SWG nikuššāʁ- 2, NWG nikuχχāʁtuʁ- 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 225
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : NVKV
Meaning : to stand, rise
Eurasiatic : *ŋwVkV
Sino-Caucasian : ? Cf. ST *ŋɨ̆k 'stand, stick up'
Amerind (misc.) : *nuka 'stand' (R 686)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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