Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *dg'hem-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: earth
Hittite: tekan n., gen. taknas 'Erde', dagan, tagan 'nieder, zu Boden'; HLuw takamia `Erde', Luw. tijammi id. (Friedrich 204, 220)
Tokharian: A tkaṃ, B keṃ `Erde' (Adams 192)
Old Indian: kṣā́ḥ, gen. jmáḥ, gmáḥ, kṣmáḥ, acc. kṣām, instr. jmā́, kṣamā́, loc. kṣámi `ground, earth', kṣámya- `terrestrial'
Avestan: zɔ̄, gen. zǝmo, acc. ząm, loc. zǝmi 'Erde, Erdboden'
Old Greek: khthṓn, -onós f. `Erde, Erdboden, Land', khthamaló- `niedrig', neo-khmó- `neu, ungewöhnlich, fremdartig'
Slavic: *zemljā́; *zemь
Baltic: *ǯem-i- f., *ǯem-iā̃ f., *ǯam-iā̃ f.
Latin: humus, -ī/-ūs f. (/m.) `Erde, Erdboden', humilis `niedrig'
Other Italic: Osk hu(n)truis 'inferis', huntrus 'inferos', Umbr hondomu 'infimo'
Russ. meaning: земля
References: WP I 662 f, Buck 16.
Comments: Hard to distinguish from the reflexes of *g'hem- #3258. All Italic forms (Lat humus, etc.) may in fact belong there.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

Search within this database


Vasmer's dictionary :

Search within this database
Word: земля́,
Near etymology: укр., блр. земля́, др.-русск., ст.-слав. земл γῆ, ἔδαφος, ἄρουρα (Клоц., Супр.), болг. земя́, сербохорв. зѐмља, словен. zémlja, чеш. země, слвц. zem, польск. ziemia, в.-луж., н.-луж. zemja.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. žẽmė "земля", лтш. zеmе, др.-прусск. semme -- то же, сюда же лит. žẽmas "низкий", лтш. zems -- то же, авест., др.-перс. zam- ж. "земля", греч. χαμαί "на земле", χαμηλός "низкий", лат. humus, фриг. ζεμέλω "мать-земля", откуда греч. Σεμέλη (Кречмер, Аus dеr Anomia 19 и сл.) -- образование, аналогичное греч. νεφέλη. Существуют различные расширения древнего к.-основы: др.-инд. kṣam-, авест. zå, греч. χθών; см. Ван-Вейк, AfslPh 42, 286 и сл.; Френкель, ZfslPh 13, 210; Траутман, Арr. Sprd. 418; ВSW 369; М.--Э. 4, 709; Вальде--Гофм. I, 664 и сл.; Соболевский, РФВ 66, 397. Еще Брандт (РФВ 25, 220) предполагал древнюю основу на согласный ввиду ст.-слав. земьнъ без l-epentheticum. Ср. также др.-русск. земь, соврем. на́земь, о́земь и под.; см. Преобр. I, 249. Диал. зень, назень могло произойти от *земнь, но также и в результате ассимиляции из наземь.
Pages: 2,93
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *ǯem-i- f., *ǯem-iā̃ f., *ǯam-iā̃ f.
Meaning: earth, ground
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: žẽmē `Erde, Boden, Acker, Land', südlit. žãmē 'ds.' und `Erdklumpen, Erdreich, Erde als Material'; žẽma- 'niedrig'
Lettish: zeme, dial. zems (gen. -s) `Erde (Boden), Land, Landbesitz'; zęms 'niedrig'
Old Prussian: same, semmē `Erde', semmai 'nieder'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *DVG-
Meaning: earth
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *dhǵhem-
Altaic: *t`ā̀go [+ TM *tuka(la)?]
Kartvelian: *diq-
Dravidian: *TūK-
Eskimo-Aleut: *taɣŋǝ- (~ -ŋɣ-) ?
References: МССНЯ 342, ОСНЯ 1, 220. ND 551 *dEqV 'earth' compares Georg. with quite dubious SH forms; ND 2331 *ṭogE 'dust, earth (substance)' (IE + somewhat differ. Alt. + quite dubious SH); 2347 *ṭuḲ[a] 'earth, mud, dust' (TM + Drav + SH).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *t`ā̀go
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dirt (dust, clay)
Russian meaning: грязь (пыль, глина)
Turkic: *Tog
Tungus-Manchu: *tāksa
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *Tog
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dust
Russian meaning: пыль
Old Turkic: toɣ (OUygh. - late, Lig. VSOu)
Karakhanid: toɣ (MK, KB); toɣ- 'to rise (of dust)'
Middle Turkic: toɣ (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uighur: toɣ (dial., Malov - Xami)
Khakassian: tōla- 'to crumble'
Tuva: toɣ-la- 'to crumble'
Comments: VEWT 483, EDT 463.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *tāksa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: clay
Russian meaning: глина
Evenki: tāksa
Even: tās
Negidal: tāksa
Ulcha: toaqsa
Orok: tōqso
Nanai: toaqsa
Udighe: takeä
Comments: ТМС 2, 154.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Kartvelian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kartvelian: *diq-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: глина, земля
English meaning: clay, earth
Georgian: tixa- (Old Georg. tiqa-)
Megrel: dixa, dexa
Laz: (n)dixa
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 94 (*tiqa-), EWK 111-112. Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 220) сравнивает с ПИЕ *dhǵh-em- "земля", восстанавливая ностр. *diqV. Климов (1994, 100-101) сравнивает основу с ПИЕ *dheiǵho-, однако последнее не значит "глина", но лишь "глиняное изделие" ("вылепленное", от *dheiǵh- 'лепить'), что, наряду с фонетическими соображениями (-q- на месте ПИЕ *ǵh) ставит заимствование из ПИЕ под сильное сомнение.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

Search within this database


Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dravidian : *TūK-
Meaning : earth
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *tugaḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *dūgar_-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *tūk
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

Search within this database


South Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-South Dravidian : *tugaḷ-
Meaning : dust
Tamil : tukaḷ
Tamil meaning : dust, particle of dust, pollen; fault, moral defect
Tamil derivates : tūḷ dust, powder, particle, pollen; tūci, tūcu dust
Malayalam : tūḷ
Malayalam meaning : dust
Malayalam derivates : tūḷi dust, husk; tūḷuka to be reduced to dust, rise as dust, make like dust; veḷḷam t. water to break or fall into spray, spray to rise; dhūḷuka to fly about as dust, wind to blow
Kannada : dūḷ(u)
Kannada meaning : dust, powder, pollen
Kodagu : dūḷɨ
Kodagu meaning : dust
Tulu : dūḷu, dhūḷu
Tulu meaning : dust
Tulu derivates : dūsu fine powder; dūselụ powder, dust; powdered, dusty
Proto-Nilgiri : *tūl-ĭ
Notes : All the *dūḷ- forms probably borrowed from Indo-Aryan.
Number in DED : 3283
sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

Search within this database


Nilgiri etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Nilgiri : *tūl-ĭ
Meaning : dust
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : tūj
Number in DED : 3283
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

Search within this database


Telugu etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Telugu : *dūgar_-
Meaning : dust, dirt, soot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : dūgar_a
Number in DED : 3283
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

Search within this database


Kolami-Gadba etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *tūk
Meaning : earth, clay
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : tūk "dust"
Kinwat Kolami : tūk
Naikri : tūk
Parji : tūk, (S) tūkuḍ "earth, clay, soil"
Ollari Gadba : tūkuṛ
Additional forms : Also Parji dūl- (dust) to rise (?)
Number in DED : 3283
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-kol_kin,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

Search within this database


Eskimo etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Eskimo: *taɣŋǝ- (~ -ŋɣ-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Proto-Yupik: *taɣnǝ- ~ *taŋɣǝ-
Proto-Inupik: *taɣɣa-
Comments: This stem is not related to *tar-(r)u- 'dark, black' and others (cf. ibid.).
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,

Search within this database


Yupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yupik: *taɣnǝ- ~ *taŋɣǝ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: black 1, dark 2, darkness 3, shadow 4
Russian Meaning: черный 1, темный 2, темнота 3, тень 4 (сажа 3)
Chaplino: taɣnǝ́lʁi (t) 1, [taʁnǝ́ʁaq (t) 4, 'reflection']
Naukan: tánɣǝq 1, //taŋŋuʁ- 1 [Jen.], [taɣnǝ́ʁaq 4]
Chugach (AAY): tannǝq 3, tannǝʁ- 2, tannǝʁlik 'black bear'
Chugach (Birket-Smith): tannaʁqaq 1, tannạʁalịq 'black bear'
Central Alaskan Yupik: tanɣǝq (ʁ) 3, taŋǝʁ- 2, tanɣǝʁlik 'black bear'
Nunivak (Peripheral): [cf. tāχ* 1, tālaxpax 'very dark place' [Lantis], tālǝx 1]
PAME: *taʁ(ʁ)a-k 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 333
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-chug,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-pame,yupet-ced,

Search within this database


Inupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Inupik: *taɣɣa-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: total darkness
Russian meaning: темень, абсолютная темнота
WCI Dialects: Car Baker Lake taɣɣalaq, taɣɣaliq [Schn.]
Eastern Canadian Inupik: taɣɣatuʁjuinaq- 'to be very dark'
Greenlandic Inupik: taxxaʁiɣ- 'to be pitch dark'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 333
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : TVKV
Meaning : earth
Eurasiatic : *DVG-
Afroasiatic : daḳʷ-
Sino-Caucasian : *[t]VQV́
Austric : PAN *bitak, *-tak, *litek 'mud; earth, ground', ?PAA *tVk 'sticky'
Amerind (misc.) : *tVk- 'dirt' (GE 42)
African (misc.) : Bantu *-tàkà 'soil'.
Reference : МССНЯ 342; GE 42 *tika (+ ?NC, ?NS).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *daḳʷ-
Meaning: clay
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: deḳaḳ-hān (pl.) 'mud' Soqotri
Berber: *dVḳ(ḳ)- 'clay'
Western Chadic: *daḳ- 'clay soil'
Beḍauye (Beja): dekʷa 'dust'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *daḳu- 'clay '
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-bed,afaset-agw,

Search within this database


Berber etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Berber: *dVḳ(ḳ)-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'clay'
Semlal: i-dǝqqi
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-sml,

Search within this database


West Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-WChadic: *daḳo-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'dark clay soil'
Hausa: dáḳṓ
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,

Search within this database


Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

Search within this database
Bedauye: dekʷa
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'dust'
Notes: Regular -k- < *-ḳ-.
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

Search within this database


Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Agaw: *daḳʷ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: clay
Qwara: daḫʷa
Notes: Rein 48
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-kwr,agwet-notes,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *[t]VQV́
Meaning: dirt, clay
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *dhǝ̆k
Yenisseian: *tǝq-
Burushaski: *toq
Comments and references : NSC 53 *dVQV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

Search within this database


Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *dhǝ̆k
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: clay, mire
Chinese: *dhǝk, *thǝks clay, clayey.
Tibetan: ãdag clay; cleaving, adhering.
Lushai: diak mud, mire.
Comments: Peiros-Starostin 212. Cf. also Konyak *kǝtok 'earth'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

Search within this database


Chinese characters :

Search within this database
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zhí
Preclassic Old Chinese: dhǝk
Classic Old Chinese: dhǝk
Western Han Chinese: dhǝk
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒhǝk
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒhɨk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒhɨk
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒhɨk
Middle Chinese: ʒ́ik
English meaning : clay, clayey
Russian meaning[s]: 1) клейкая глина; 2) керамика, гончарная работа
Comments: Also read *thǝk-s, MC ćhɨ̀ id.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 32
Four-angle index: 739
Karlgren code: 0919 c
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

Search within this database


Yenisseian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yenisseian: *tǝq-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: clay, mud
Ket: tuɣit ( < *tǝʁ-kit) 'to smear (with clay)'
Yug: tǝx
Kottish: thagar, Ass. tagar 'clay'; thagan, thakan 'sand'
Arin: tanen 'sand' (a plur. form)
Pumpokol: tɨk (Срсл) 'dirt, mud'
Comments: ССЕ 284. Klaproth's Ket tagar is probably a recording of the Kott. form. The Ket form is influenced by tuʔ 'dry clay', but hardly derived from it. Werner 2, 304 *thǝq. The Kott.-Arin word for 'sand' can be hardly separated from this root, despite Werner 2, 314.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

Search within this database


Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *toq
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: mud
Yasin: toq
Hunza: toq
Nagar: toq
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database


Austric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austric: *tVk
Meaning: mud
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: tVk
Austroasiatic meaning: sticky
Proto-Austronesian: bitak, -tak (cf. also *diteq, -teq 'sticky'?)
Austronesian meaning: mud
Notes: Cf. *TVki.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-notes,

Search within this database


Austro-Asiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austro-Asiatic: tVk
Meaning: sticky
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Bahnaric: BAH kǝtǝk
Proto-Palaungic: VIII thak.31 ńaʔ.51
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-bah,aaet-pawa,

Search within this database


Bahnar etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Bahnaric: *tǝ̆k
Meaning: sap, sticky
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Bahnar: kǝtǝk
Bahnar meaning: sticky
banet-meaning,banet-prnum,banet-bah,banet-bahme,

Search within this database


North Bahnaric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North-Bahnaric:
Meaning: sap, sticky
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Rengao form: kǝtak.T
Rengao meaning: sap
nobet-meaning,nobet-prnum,nobet-ren,nobet-renme,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
4914313398
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov