Change viewing parameters
Select another database

South Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-South Dravidian : *tōɣ-/*tUɣ-ai-
Meaning : to tread; to pound, beat
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : tukai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to tread down, trample on, bruise or destroy by treading, pound in a mortar, mash, vex; roam about, walk
Tamil derivates : tuvai (-pp-, -tt-) to tread down, pound as in a mortar; n. treading, pounding
Kannada : tōku
Kannada meaning : to beat, strike
Tulu : toipuni
Tulu meaning : to beat, strike
Tulu derivates : tōku collision
Proto-Nilgiri : *tōt- (?)
Notes : The Kota form does not necessarily belong here.
Number in DED : 3539
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

Search within this database


Nilgiri etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Nilgiri : *tōt-
Meaning : to beat slightly
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : tōt- (tōty-)
Number in DED : 3539
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

Search within this database


Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dravidian : *tōɣ-
Meaning : to kick, stamp
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *tōɣ-/*tUɣ-ai-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *toɣ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *tōk-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

Search within this database


Gondwan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *toɣ-
Meaning : to kick
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *tog-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *tōɣ-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

Search within this database


Pengo-Manda etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *tog-
Meaning : to tread, trample
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : tog- (tokt-) "to tread, step on"
Manda : tug- (tukt-) "to trample"
Number in DED : 3539
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

Search within this database


Kui-Kuwi etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *tōɣ-
Meaning : to kick
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : tōga (tōgi-) "to kick; n. a kick"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : toiyali
Kuwi (Schulze) : toyinai "to spurn"
Sunkarametta Kuwi : toy-
Dongriya Kuwi : doy- (-it-) "to tread on, trample"
Kuwi (Israel) : doy- (-it-) "to kick, step on"
Notes : Initial d- in Kuwi_D and Kuwi_Isr is probably assimilated to the voiced *-ɣ-; however, this cannot be proved, since this is the only example, and no other consonants show any traces of such a voicening.
Number in DED : 3539
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_d,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

Search within this database


North Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North-Dravidian : *tōk-
Meaning : to stamp violently with one foot or with both feet (as in jatra dance)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : tōknā
Number in DED : 3539
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-dednum,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *ṭoḳV
Meaning: beat
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *teuk-
Altaic: *t`ók`ù ( ~ -k-)
Uralic: *tukV (*tuɣV) (cf. also *tokka )
Kartvelian: Georg. (da-)ṭaḳan- 'an/zusammenstoßen, zusammenprallen, angreifen'
Dravidian: *tōɣ-
Comments: [Cf. also PIE *tek's-, PK *ṭḳeć- 1096; PA *tŭ̀gì 'to pound', PIE *dheug'h- `to beat, hit'; Drav. *tāk- 'to touch, hit'; Ur. tekV 'stossen' 1059, tokka 'stechen, stecken' 1668; NDr *tuk 'push']
References: Bomhard 1966, 157; ND 2335 *ṭäka 'to attack' (Georg. + differ. Alt. + Drav. *tāk- + Sem.); 2349 *ṭ[ü]Ḳa 'to thrust, stab' (IE *teuk-, Ur. *tokka-, *tekV, Alt. *t`ĭ́[k`]ù 'stuff into, press into' + Ndr *tuk-). Obviously several roots, but hard to sort out.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *tūk-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to beat
Old Greek: tǘko-s (/ tǘkho-s) m. `Gerät zum Bearbeiten der Steine, Schmiedehammer, Steinaxt; Streitaxt', éu̯-tüko- (/ -kh-) `bereit, fertig', tükánǟ f. `Dreschvorrichtung, Dreschflegel'
Slavic: *tъkā́tī, *tъknǭtī, *tūkātī (sculpere), *jьz-tūkānъ
Baltic: *tū̂k-ī̂- (2) vb., *tū̂k-ā̂- vb.
Germanic: *ɵū́x-a-/*ɵíux-a- vb.
Celtic: ? *tull- > OIr toll `hohl', toll `Hohle, Loch'; Cymr twll `foramen', adj. `perforatus', Bret toull `Loch'
Russ. meaning: бить
References: WP II 615 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Vasmer's dictionary :

Search within this database
Word: ты́кать,
Near etymology: -аю, ты́кнуть, укр. ти́кати, цслав. тыкати "колоть", болг. ти́кам "пихаю, втыкаю", словен. tíkati, tȋkam, tȋčem "касаться, трогать", чеш. týkati sе "касаться, относиться", слвц. týkаt᾽ sа -- то же, польск. tykać się "касаться, дотрагиваться", в.-луж. tykać "совать, тыкать", н.-луж. tykaś "трогать, толкать, тыкать".
Further etymology: Родственно лтш. tūkât, -ãju, tūcît "месить, давить", д.-в.-н. dûhen "давить". Связано чередованием гласных с ткать, ткнуть (см.); см. М. -- Э. 3, 278; Траутман, ВSW 331.
Pages: 4,130
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *tū̂k-ī̂- (2) vb., *tū̂k-ā̂- vb.
Meaning: to knead, press
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lettish: tũkât, tûkât (-ãju) 'drücken, kneten, stossen'; tûcît (tûku/tûcu/tûcĩju, tûcĩju) 'kneten, knutschen, drücken usw.'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lett,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Germanic: *ɵū́xan-/*ɵíuxan-
Meaning: press
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: ɵǖn, ɵēon `drücken, belästigen, stossen, stechen, grohen'
Middle Dutch: duwen, douwen `duwen, drukken, dringen'
Dutch: duwen (< westvlam.)
Old High German: { dūhen `drücken, niederdrücken' }
Middle High German: diuhen, tiuhen, dūhen, douhen wk. 'drücken, schieben, ein-, niederdrücken'
German: { dial. deuhen, dauhen }
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *t`ók`ù ( ~ -k-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hit, knock, beat
Russian meaning: бить, стучать, ударять
Turkic: *tokɨ-
Mongolian: *togsi-
Tungus-Manchu: *tokta-
Korean: *thí-
Japanese: *túk-
Comments: KW 398. There may have existed an expressive variant with *t- (cf. some Turkic forms, Mong. doki-ɣur 'drumstick', doki- 'to hit, knock down' (KW 93), Evk. (May.) dokto- 'to hit, chop'); see Дыбо 13. The root is of course expressive (see TMN 2, 460), but seems reconstructable for PA, and distinguishable from *tŭ̀gì 'to pound'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *tokɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to hit, knock, strike 2 mallet
Russian meaning: 1 бить, ударять 2 молот 3 трогать, касаться
Old Turkic: toqɨ- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.), toqɨmaq 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: toqɨ- 1 (MK, KB), toqɨmaq 2 (MK, IM)
Turkish: tokuš- 1, doku- 1 (dial.), dokun- 3, tokmak 2
Tatar: tuqɨ- 1, tuqɨn- 3, tuqmaq 2
Middle Turkic: toqun- 3 (Pav. C.), toqmaq 2 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: tọqin- 3, tọqmɔq
Uighur: toqun- 3
Azerbaidzhan: toGGuš- 1, toxun- 3, toχmaG 2
Turkmen: toqmaq 2
Khakassian: toɣas- 'to hit upon > meet', toxpax 2
Shor: toɣaš- 'to meet'
Oyrat: toqul-da- 1, toqpoq 2
Halaj: toqu- 1, toqun- 3, toqmaq 2
Tuva: toqqu-la- 1, tonur- 3 (< dhon-ur-), doqpaq 2
Kirghiz: toqmoq 2
Kazakh: toqɨl-da- 1, toqpaq 2
Noghai: toqpaq 2
Bashkir: tuqɨlda- 1, tuqmaq 2
Balkar: toqmaq 2
Gagauz: doqun- 3, toqmaq 2
Karaim: toqɨš- 'to clink (glasses)', toqɨn- 3, toqmaq 2
Karakalpak: toqɨlda- 1, toqpaq 2
Salar: toxmax 2 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: toqala- 1, toqmaq 2
Comments: VEWT 484-485, TMN 2, 629, EDT 467, 470, ЭСТЯ 3, 253-254, 256-257. The variants with *d- may be archaic, see below.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *togsi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to strike, beat
Russian meaning: бить, ударять
Written Mongolian: toɣsi- (L 814)
Khalkha: togši-
Buriat: togšo-
Kalmuck: tokšǝ-
Dagur: tokšōr 'hammer' (Тод. Даг. 167)
Comments: KW 398.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-dag,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *tokta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to hit, knock 2 to chop 3 sound of knocking
Russian meaning: 1 колотить 2 рубить 3 стук
Evenki: tokto- 1,2
Even: towta- 1,2
Negidal: tokto- 2
Literary Manchu: toq seme 3
Ulcha: tụqtụri- 1
Nanai: tokto- 2
Oroch: tokto- 1
Udighe: tokto- 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 193.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Korean etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Korean: *thí-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hit, strike, beat
Russian meaning: бить, ударять
Modern Korean: čhi-
Middle Korean: thí-
Comments: Nam 460, KED 1654.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

Search within this database


Japanese etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Japanese: *túk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hit, strike, beat
Russian meaning: бить, колотить, ударять
Old Japanese: tuk-
Middle Japanese: túk-
Tokyo: tsùk-
Kyoto: tsúk-
Kagoshima: tsúk-
Comments: Homonymous with *túk- 'to poke, thrust', but written differently and probably different etymologically.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

Search within this database


Uralic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 1676
Proto: *tukV (*tuɣV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to break
German meaning: brechen
Mari (Cheremis): tuɣe- (V U B M P) 'brechen'
Udmurt (Votyak): tijal- (S G) 'brechen, abbrechen', tijalt- (S K) 'abbrechen, entzweibrechen'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : TVKV
Meaning : beat
Eurasiatic : *ṭoḳV
Afroasiatic : *tuk- (+ *dak-/duk- 800, *daḳ-/*duḳ- 827, *tuḳ- 831, *dug- 832, *tug- 860)
Sino-Caucasian : ST *tōk 948, *thŏk 1053
Austric : *TVk
Amerind (misc.) : *tika 'hit' (R 372) [+ A]; *tok 'hit' (R 373) [+ A]
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *tuk-
Meaning: beat, press
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *tuk-'press' 1, 'cut, destroy' 2
Berber: *tVk- 'knock'
Western Chadic: *taku- 'trample' 1, 'push' 2, 'step on' 3, 'beat' 4
Central Chadic: *tukwa- 'clap'
Saho-Afar: *tak-/*tok- 'strike'
Omotic: *tuk- 'hit, strike'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-sho,afaset-omo,

Search within this database


Semitic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 504
Proto-Semitic: *tuk-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'press' 1, 'cut, destroy' 2
Akkadian: takāku 1
Arabic: tkk [-u-] 2
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ara,

Search within this database


Berber etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Berber: *tVk-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'knock'
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): tǝk-ǝt
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ahg,

Search within this database


West Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-WChadic: *taku-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 1 'trample',2 'push',3 'press on',4'beat'
Hausa: tā́kà 1
Ngamo: tako 4 [??]
Bokos: tuk 2 [JgR]
Daffo-Butura: tuk 2 [JgR]
Ngizim: tàk-ḍú 3, 1 [ShN]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-ngm,wchet-bks,wchet-dfb,wchet-ngz,

Search within this database


Central Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-CChadic: *tukwa-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'beat, strike'1, 'nail' 2, 'kill' 3, 'quoin' (v.) 4
Mofu-Gudur: -́tǝk- 2 [BMof]
Gisiga: tukwa- 1 [LGis]
Mulwi: túkí 4 [TMlw]
Logone: tku 1 [LLog]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mof,cchet-gis,cchet-muk,cchet-log,

Search within this database


Saho-Afar etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Saho-Afar: *tak-/*tok-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'strike'
Afar (Danakil): tak-, -ootok-
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-afar,

Search within this database


Omotic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Omotic: *tuk-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hit, strike'
Kafa (Kaficho): tuk-
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,

Search within this database


Austric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austric: *TVk
Meaning: to beat
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *Tɔ:k (also *tuk)
Austroasiatic meaning: beat
Proto-Thai: to:k to hammer into
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-tai,

Search within this database


Austro-Asiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *tuk
Meaning: beat
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Khmer: ṭuk CHECK
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kmr,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
29222346165
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov