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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *i
Meaning : this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : i
Tamil meaning : demonstr. base expr. the nearer or proximate person or thing; pref. to nouns, expr. nearness [i before consonant, ivv before vowel]
Tamil derivates : ivan_, ivaḷ, ivar/ivarkaḷ, itu (before consonant)/ ik_tu (before vowel), iv/ivai this man, this woman, these persons/this person (hon.), this thing, these things; adj. inta, in_ai; ī̆ŋkaṇ, iŋkiṭṭu, iŋku, iŋkuttai, iŋkē, itōḷ, itōḷi here; impar here; this world; ivaṇ, īn_ this place, this world; īṇṭu, īṇṭai here, in this world; iŋŋan_, iŋŋan_am, īŋku here; in this manner; itā, itō, intā, intō, itā behold!; intaṇṭai on this side; ippaṭi, ivvatu, in_n_aṇam, īŋkan_am in this way; i-ppāl on this side; hereafter; i-ppur_am this place, this side; i-ppoẓutu, i-ppōtu now; ippavum even now, just now; ittan_ai so much, a few; ittuṇai thus much; ittāl by this means; immai the present birth; in_n_a such; such things; in_n_atu such as this, this thing; in_n_an_, in_n_ān_ such a person; in_i now, immediately; in_n_-in_i now, even now, without a moment's delay; in_n_ē now, here, thus; (Asher-Radhakrishnan, p. 150) intāruŋkaḷ here you are!
Malayalam : i, ī
Malayalam meaning : this
Malayalam derivates : ivan, ivaḷ, ivar, itu, iva this man, this woman, these persons, this thing, these things; iŋŋu in this direction, here; iŋŋanē, iŋŋinē thus; iŋŋiṭē, iŋŋiṭa here, hither; iŋŋōṭṭu hither, this way; itā behold here!; ittaram this kind, thus; ittiri so much; inna this, such; ippaṭi thus; i-ppur_am this side; īppōḷ now
Kannada : i-
Kannada meaning : proximate demonstrative base
Kannada derivates : iva/īta, ivaḷ/īke, ivar/ivargaḷ, idu/itu/ittu, ivu this man, this woman, these persons, this thing, these things; adj. ī; ikō̆, ikkō, igō, idā̆, ide, idō look here!; īce this side, to this side, on this side; iṭa, ī̆ṭu, iṣṭu, isa, initu, inittu, inisu, intuṭu, īsu so much or many as this; initum all this or these, a little; inibar so many persons as these; itta, ittal on this side, in this direction, to this side, hereafter; intā̆, inthā̆, intaha of this kind; innaṃ such a man as this; intu in this manner, thus; ine, inne, īga, īgaḍu, īgal, īgaḷ, īgye at this time, now; inu, innu the current time; illi, ili in this place, here; ihage, ihaŋge, ihige, hīge, hīŋge in this manner, thus
Kodagu : ivëN, iva, ivu/ieŋga, idɨ
Kodagu meaning : this man, this woman, these persons, this thing/these things
Kodagu derivates : adj. ī; illi here; illiñji from here; ittɨ, ittaṭṭi, ippara to this side; ittiñji from this side; īle by this way; ikka now; ikkatiñji from now on; ikkākaṇe, [Dict. also] ikkākane up to now; ikkalē, ikkannē just now; iccë, iccakɨ, [Dict. also] iccëkɨ this many; innatë, intë, [Dict. also] intadɨ of this kind; innane, ītaratɨ in this manner; innatāŋgɨ for this purpose; īnaŋguṇḍɨ on account of this; ippara this side; [Dict.] ikkatë now-a-days; ikkare this side; iñña (N.C.), iññi (S.C.) hereafter, henceforth; iñña piñña from now; iññi miñña afterwards; iññu still; iññorɨ next; illikattaṇe upto this place; ītara in this kind
Tulu : imbe, mōḷu/imbā̆ḷ/imboḷu, mērụ/mōkuḷu/imberụ, indụ
Tulu meaning : this man, this woman, these persons, this thing, [these things]
Tulu derivates : adj. ī; ītụ so much, so many; mūḷu, muḷḷu, muḷpa, muḷḷa here; muḷta of this place; iḍa, iḍe, iḍegụ, iñci hither; īpe, īmbe adv. this side; iñca thus, in this manner; iñcane, iñcene just so; indā behold!; iñcogu lately, recently; ittarụ, ittaru, itarụ, ittara enough; ittè now; ittene just now, immediately
Proto-Nilgiri : *i-
Irula : ivä
Irula meaning : he (proximate)
Irula derivates : iva she (proximate); ivaru they; ippu now; idi, īnge, īngu here; inime, innu hereafter; innumu till now; īgaḍe, īngaḍe this side
Kasaba : ī
Kasaba meaning : this (adj.)
Kasaba derivates : ivān he; ivā she; ivārɨ he (hon.), they (hum.); ippepāṭṭi this much; ippō, ippu this time, now; it_t_ā this way; ittāli this much/amount; id_i this, here; īne this way/direction; hence; īneme thus; īnemē like this; īnā for this; īnkɨ here
Notes : Irula 113-114; Kasaba 175-176; Kodagu 82-84.
Number in DED : 0410

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *i-
Meaning : near the speaker
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : i- "near the speaker (in ivḷ, ivr, id this man, woman, etc.)"
Toda : i- "same meaning as in Kota"
Additional forms : Also Kota adj. i; ī this place; īk to this place; ītr from this place; iōn, iōḷ, iōr, īd this man, woman, etc.; ijn hence; it_ this direction; it_āk a little this way; it_ltr from this direction; itervī in this neighbourhood; iḷy now; iḷyōn, iḷyōḷ, iḷyōr, iḷyd this man, woman, etc., now; ilā lo here!; inm (obl. int-) like this, this fashion, this amount; intk to this extent; inān/inōn, inōḷ, inōr, ind such an important man, woman, etc., as this; inā, ininā adj. such and such (as this); intā so great, such and such; īpāṭy so big as this; intal so many as this; inmūṛ like this; idejn from this time on; ināk by now; indēl this last night, yesterday night; this coming night (cf. andēl evening); Toda (obl. in-) this person or thing; pl. iɵām; adj. i; iɵɨd because of this; iɵī like this; it_ in this direction; it_ɨk a little in this direction; il in this place, here; it_s_n, is_n from this direction; ɨtfok now; ɨt this many; ɨtk this much; ɨtks_ at this distance; ɨtɨtk only so much as this; ɨtōf such as this; ɨ(g) gɨs in this manner; ɨs_ ɨn- (ɨd_-) to say like this; ? to have a refreshing feeling; ɨs_ym exactly; īnk to this place; īnār_ towards here, by this road; ? ɨty few, small in quantity; īṇy now; ītoṭ this bank (for possible analysis, cf. 1); i mun nōṛ this world, the world of the living (cf. 1)
Notes : For PN derivatives see PN *a-.
Number in DED : 410

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *i-
Meaning : this
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *i
Proto-Telugu :
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *i-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *i-
Proto-North Dravidian :
Brahui : ī-

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu :
Meaning : adjective this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : ī
Number in DED : 410

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *i-
Meaning : this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : im/imd, ivr, id, idav "this man, these men, this woman or thing, these women or things"
Naikri : ivnd, id, idav "this man, this woman or thing, these women or things"
Naiki : īn, īr, id "this man, these men, this woman or thing"
Parji : id, iv "this woman or thing, these women or things"
Ollari Gadba : id "that woman or thing"
Additional forms : Also Kolami adj. (rarely used) ī; Naikri, Parji, Ollari adj. ī
Notes : For inflected forms see *a-.
Number in DED : 410

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *i-
Meaning : this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *iv-nR (obl. *ivn-)
Konda : vēnr_u (obl. veni-)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *i-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi :
Notes : The declineable forms in PGn are analogical to those formed from *a- (*iwanr_u 'this man', etc.).

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *iv-nR (obl. *ivn-)
Meaning : he, this man
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : ēl (obl. ēn-), pl. ēṛ "he, this man, these men"
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : ēr (pl. ērk) "he, this man, these men"
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : ēr (pl. ērk) "he, this man, these men"
Gommu Gondi : vēr
Muria Gondi : ēr (obl. ēn-)
Maria Gondi : vēr̨
Seoni Gondi : īn "this man"
Koya Gondi : vēnḍ
Yeotmal Gondi : vēr
Maria Gondi (Mitchell) : vēr
Chindwara Gondi : iyel (pl. iyeṛ) "he, this man, these men"
Adilabad Gondi : vēr (obl. vēn-), pl. vīr "he, this man, these men"
Durg Gondi : vēr
Chanda Gondi : ēr (pl. ērk) "(ChD) he, this man, these men"
Notes : The original quality of the vowel has been preserved in Gondi_S (īn < *iv-n) and Gondi_Ch, which alone of all dialects has preserved some traces of -v- in its former position: iyel < *iv-l < *iv-nR. In most other dialects vowel quality has been modified, and some preserved the original -v- by means of a metathese.
Number in DED : 410
Number in CVOTGD : 390, 181, 212, 3314

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : vēnr_u (obl. veni-)
Meaning: this man
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda vēr/u/ (obl. veri-), idi (obl. deni-), ivi (obl. venka-) these men, this woman or thing, these women or things; ikan, ikar, ikad, ikeŋ id.; ital (obl. itaR-) this side; itaR/i/ of this side; itaRaṇḍ from this side; ibe/bēn (obl. ibeṇ-/bēṇ-) here; ibeṇi/bēṇi of this place, belonging to this place; ibekan man belonging here; īR/u/ in this manner, like this; iya (variant ) adj. this; iyakan this man, etc.; iyel, ēl now; iyoṇḍ this year; nini this type or manner; ninikan this sort of man, etc.; ninu ones (women or things) like this; niso this many, this much; nisoṇḍar, nisok/nisoṛ/nisoṇḍ these many men, these many women or things
Number in DED : 410

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *i-
Meaning : this
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : ivan/iven, ivar, idel, ivek, idi/idaŋ, ivaŋ "this man, these men, this woman, these women, this thing, these things"
Manda : ivan, idel, idi "this man, this woman, this thing"
Additional Forms : Also Pengo adj. ī, inda; ice, icek, icaka (neut. pl. iciŋ, icoŋ) so big, so many, so much; igo, igoy now; inṭaŋ in this direction; ini, ibe here; ibṇi belonging to here; ileŋ so, in this way; iyonḍaŋ/iyonḍiŋ this year; Manda ī adj. this; icek this much, so much; ini here; ība id.; ī̃yuṭ this year
Number in DED : 410

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi :
Meaning : this
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : ī
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : ī
Kuwi (Schulze) : ī
Number in DED : 410

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian :
Meaning : this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : ī
Malto : ī
Additional forms : Also KUR ībīrī at this moment (previously mentioned); idā, isan, hisan here; istī from here; idim just at present; idnā this year; īge therefore; ijgō in this direction; innū in this direction, by this means, ittrā, hittrā id., hither; iũndā, iū̃rā, iū̃rū, iū̃ as nuch or many as; iū̃ŋgē so, therefore; iyyā , hiyyā over here, in this village or country; ennē such as this; MLT īw, īwe these objects or circumstances (previously mentioned); ithi, ihin_, inda, in_hi here!; indeki, īnki, īnle, īn_y, in_yle thus; īne to do thus; ino here; inond so much; inonno by this time; inor now; īṭi this place.
Number in DED : 410

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : ī-
Meaning : a base declined for case, to which the enclitic suffix pronouns are added
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 410

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔi (*hi)
Meaning: this
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *i-, *ey-; *yo-
Altaic: *i
Uralic: *jo; *i (in UEW together with *e-)
Kartvelian: *hi
Dravidian: *i-
References: ND 753 *ʔi; 2618 *yi 'he (anaphoric) (hardly distinguishable).

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *i-, *ey-; *yo- (Greek h-)
Meaning: pron. dem./relat.
Old Indian: ayám 'he', idám 'id.', iyám, acc. sg. m. imam ; relat. ya-ḥ
Avestan: īm (= iyǝm) 'sie, ea'; gath ayǝ̄m, jat. aēm 'er'; relat. yō
Other Iranian: OPers acc. m.iyam, imam, f. imām usw.
Old Greek: cypr. ī̆n 'eum, eam', lesb., thess., hom ía 'una'; hó-s 'welcher'
Slavic: *jь, *ī, *ye; *jь-že; -jь (in adj.)
Baltic: *ji-, *jei-, *jī f.
Germanic: *iz 'er', acc, *inan, *ita 'es' usw.
Latin: is, ea, id usw.
Celtic: OIr ē, hē 'er' (< *eis), ed (hed) 'es'
Albanian: e 'eum, eam', dat. i 'ei', i 'eos, eas, u 'eis'
Russ. meaning: мест. указ./относит.
References: WP I 97 ff

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: и́же,
Near etymology: я́же, е́же "который", церк., др.-русск., ст.-слав. иже, же, ѥже ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, стар. чеш. jenž м., jеž ж., ср. р., др.-польск. jiże, jiż.
Further etymology: Содержит и.-е. относит. местоим.; ср. др.-инд. уаs, уā, уаd, др.-перс. уа-, греч. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, фриг. ιος "кото- рый, кто" и част. žе (см. же). Без -же это местоим. представлено в определенном прилаг.: до́брый из *добръ-и и лит. geràsis от gẽras; см. Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 347 и сл. Слав. местоим. *jь, *jа, *jе употребляется также в 3 л. (ср. его́, ему́, кроме им. п. всех родов и чисел, где употребляется он, она́, оно́ и т. д.). Вин. ед. м. р. имеет в др.-русск., ст.-слав. форму и (из *jь); в соединении с предл. вместо нее выступает -н̂ь из -н- от конца некоторых праслав. предл. и *jь: др.-русск., ст.-слав. нань "на него", вънь "в него". В этом знач. *jь, *jа, *jе произошло из и.-е. *i-, ī-; ср. лит. jìs, jì, лат. is, гот. is, д.-в.-н. ir "он", кипр. ἴν "eum, еаm"; таким образом, в слав. совпали указ. и относит. местоим.; см. Бернекер 1, 419; Траутман, ВSW 105 и сл.; Френкель, ВSрr. 82; Вальде--Гофм. I, 720; Бругман, там же; Вондрак, Vgl. Gr. 2, 477 и сл. В русск. народн. языке, возм., иже заменено уже в ХI--ХII в. словом который (Козловский, AfslPh 12, 110 и сл.).
Pages: 2,118-119

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ji-, *jei-, *jī f.
Meaning: he, she
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: jìs, jì 'er, sie'; -is usw. (in adj.)
Old Prussian: pirmann-ien

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 439
Root: e-3, ei-, i-, fem. ī-
English meaning: this, etc. (demonstrative stem); one
German meaning: paradigmatisch verbundene Pronominalstamme `der, er'
General comments: (e, i wohl ursprünglich Demonstrativpartikel). Zu i- gesellt sich der Relativstamm i̯o-. Zusammenfassende Darstellungen bieten bes. Brugmann Dem. 32 ff., BSGW. 60, 41 ff., Grundr. II2 2, 324 ff., Pedersen Pron. dém. 311 ff.
Material: A. Kasuell verwendete Formen:

    ai. ayám `er' = gthav. ауǝ̄m, jav. aēm (nach ahám `ich' erweitertes ar. *ai = idg. *ei; idg. *ei vom St. e-, wie *qʷo-i vom St. kʷo-, nicht Hochstufe zu i-); ai. idám `id' (ohne die sekundäre -am-Erweiterung ai. ít, av. it̃ als hervorhebende Partikel), ai. iyám (erweitert aus *ī-) = av. īm (d. i. iyǝm), apers. iyam `sie, ea', Akk. Sg. m. ai. imám (erweitert aus *im) = apers. imam (darnach f. imām usw.), Gen. m. n. asyá, ásya = av. ahe, fem. ai. asyā́ḥ = av. aiŋ́hā̊, Dat. m. n. asmāí, ásmāi = av. ahmāi, Gen. Pl. m. n. ēšā́m = av. aēšąm, Dat. Abl. Pl. m. ai. ēbhyáḥ = av. aēibyō usw.; gthav. as[-čit̃], ǝ̄ je einmal n. Sg. m.; vom St. ā- Pl. fem. Gen. ai. āsā́m = av. ā́ŋhąm, Dat. Abl. ābhyáḥ = av. ābyō usw.

    Kуpr. ἴν `eum, eam' (scheint auch in μίν, νίν verbaut, s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6081); hierher lesb. thess. hom. ἴα (*ii̯ǝ) `una' (ursprünglich `gerade die, nur die'), hom. ἰη̃ς, ἰῃ̃, danach auch n. hom. ἰῳ̃?; anders Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 588 (*s[m]i̯ās).

    lat. is, id Nom. Sg. m. (alt auch īs, inschr. eis, eis-dem, entweder mit -s ausgestattetes idg. *ei = ai. ay-ám, wie man auch für umbr. er-e und bestimmter für ir. (h)ē `er' eine solche Grundf. *ei-s erwägt, oder Umbildung von is nach eiius, e(i)ī); Akk. altlat. im (= gr. ἴν) und em, gedoppelt emem `eundem' (vom Parallelst. e-?) = Adv. em `tum' und *im in inter-im `unterdessen', in-de `von da', Dat. Abl. Pl. ībus (: ai. ēbhyáḥ); osk. iz-io `is', idic, ídík `id' (das Anhängsel -ík, -ic ist selber das adverbiell erstarrte n. *id + *ke), osk. ís-íd-um `idem' und esídum ds., umbr. er-e `is' ers-e er̆-e `id', umbr. Dat. Sg. esmei, esmik, Gen. Pl. osk. eisun-k, umbr. esom (= ai. ēṣ̌ā́m); daraus wurde ein St. *eiso- außer in Nom.-Akk.-Formen gefolgert, z. B. osk. eizois `iis', umbr. eru-ku `cum eo', doch ist immerhin mit einem alten n. *ed zu rechnen, vgl. lat. ecce `da! sieh da!' (wohl aus *ed-ke) = osk. ekk-um (*ed-ke-um) `item', und vielleicht Akk. mēd, tēd, sēd, wenn aus *, *, * + ed, wenngleich dies nur mehr adverbiell erstarrtes *ed voraussetzt;

    ital. eo-, , im Osk.-Umbr. nur in den Nom. (außer Sg. m. n.) und Akk., im Lat. auf fast alle Casus obliqui ausgedehnt (nur eius aus *esi̯o-s, danach Dat. ei steht abseits), z. B. lat. ea, eam, osk. iúk, ioc `еа', ionc `eum', u. eam `eam', sind von der dem ai. Nom. ay-ám entsprechenden Form *e(i̯)om ausgegangen, die wegen ihres Ausganges -om als Akk. empfunden wurde und eam usw. nach sich zog; iam bei Varro 1.1. 5, 166 und 8, 44 wohl Schreibfehler für eam. - Aus dem Lat. hierher ipse aus *-is-pse (wegen alat. fem. eapse), is-te (aber ille erst danach umgebildetes ollus), vgl. umbr. estu `istum, ista';

    air. ē () `еr' (wohl *ei-s), s. oben; ed (hed) `es' (aus *id-ā = got. ita, womit formell identisch ai. idā `jetzt'; aber lit. tadà `dann' erfordert wegen ostlit. tadù einen Auslaut auf Nasal); Nom. Pl. ē () m. f. n. = mkymr. wy (hwynt-wy) wohl wenigstens zum Teil aus idg. *ei (Näheres bei Thurneysen Gr. 283), Akk. Sg. bret. en `ihn, es' (infigiert), cymr. e (ebenso), ir. -a n- (ebenso), -i (suffigiert hinter Verben; hinter Präp. teils ebenso, z. B. airi aus *ari-en `auf ihn', teils nur mehr als Mouillierung nachwirkend, z. B. foir aus *u̯or-en), Gen. Sg. *esi̯o, f. *esi̯ās `eius', proklit. a, älter z. T. noch e, æ; cymr. *eið- nach dem Vorbild der konjugierten Präpositionen zu mcymr. eidaw, f. eidi differenziert, womit identisch air. a `sein' (len.) und `ihr' (geminierend), cymr. corn. y, bret. e, usw.; über air. betontes āi, āe `eius' und Dat. Pl. -ib s. Thurneysen Gr. 285;

    got. is `er', Akk. in-a, neutr. it-a (s. o.) `es' (dazu neugebildete Pluralformen: got. eis aus *ei̯-es, Akk. ins, Dat. im, ahd. as. im) ahd. er, ir, Akk. in-an, in; n. iz; as. in-a, n. it; anord. Relativpartikel es, er, run. eR; vom St. e-: Gen. Sg. got. m. is, f. izos, ahd. m., f. ira(iru), as. es(is), era(ira); Gen. Pl. got. ize, izo, as. ahd. iro; Dat. Sg. f. got. izai, ahd. (mit anderer Endung) iru; m. n. got. imma, ahd. imu, imo, as. imu; vom St. ī- got. Akk. ija (ahd. sia usw. mit s-Vorschlag nach dem Nom. sī̆), wonach neugebildete Pluralformen, got. Nom. Akk. ijōs (ahd. sio);

    lit. jìs `er', Akk. jį̃ (zum anl. j- s. Brugmann Grundr. II2 2, 331), fem. jì, Akk. ją̃ (jõs, jaĩ usw.);

    aber aksl. Akk. Sg. f. jǫ, Nom. Akk. Pl. f. ję (über die weiteren Kasus s. Brugmann aaO.), Akk. Sg. m. -(j)ь in vidity-jь `videt eum', vъń-ь `in eum' usw. (über weiteres slav. Zubehör, z. B. jakъ `qualis', jelikъ `quantus', s. Berneker 416 f.) eher aus idg. i̯o-;

    nach Pedersen Hitt. 58 f. soll das Pron. -aš `er' usw. ein o im Ablaut zu idg. *esi̯o usw. enthalten (?); vom Stamm i- hat sich vielleicht das n. it `es' in der Verbindung netta `und es dir' (*nu-it-ta) erhalten (Friedrich Heth. Elem. I 27); vgl. hierogl. hitt. is `dieser', Akk. jan.

    B. Relativstamm i̯o-:

    ai. yás, yā́, yád, av. , gr. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ `welcher', phryg. ιος (νι) `wer immer', slav. *i̯a- in i-že, f. ja-že usw., balt. u. slav. in der Bestimmtheitsform des Adjektivs, z. B. lit. geràs-is, apr. pirmann-ien, -in, aksl. dobry-jь (s. Berneker 416 f., Trautmann 105 f.). Zweifelhaftes (lit. jeĩ `wenn', got. jabai `wenn') s. bei Brugmann II2 2, 347 f. (Lit.); Keltisches bei Pedersen KG. II 235, Thurneysen Gr. 323, doch kann cymr. a nicht dazu gehören.

    Komparativ ai. yatará-, av. yatāra-, gr. (kret. gort.) ὅτερος `welcher von beiden'; vgl. ai. yāvat, gr. ἕως, dor. ἇς (*ἁ:Fος) `solange als', ai. yād `insofern, wie' = gr. ὡς `wie'; s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 528, 614 f.

    C. Partikeln und Adverbia:

    Über die adnominale und adverbale Partikel ē̆, ō̆ s. oben S. 280 f.

    e-, ē- Augment (`*dann, damals') ai. a- (auch ā-, z. B. ā-vr̥ṇak), av. a-, arm. e- (z. B. e-lik` = ἔ-λιπε), gr. ἐ- (auch ἠ-, z. B. hom. ἤείδη).

    e- in ai. a-sā́u `jener' (neben av. hāu), a-dáḥ `jenes; dort', a-dyā́, a-dyá `heute' (Stammkompositum?), -ha `sicher, ja';

    arm. e-t`e (neben t`e) `daß, wenn';

    gr. ἐ-χθές, ἐ-κει̃, ἐ-κει̃νος (neben κει̃νος);

    osk. e-tanto, umbr. e-tantu `tanta', osk. päl. e-co `hic', osk. exo- (*e-ke-so) `hic';

    aksl. (j)e-se `еccе' (neben se ds), aruss. ose, russ. é-to `da, dahier', é-tot `der hier, dieser' (neben tot `jener'); serb. bulg. e-to `da' (usw., s. Berneker 259 f);

    unsicherer got. i-bai, i-ba Fragepartikel, ahd. ibu, oba, as. anord. ef `ob' und `wenn', ags. gif, engl. if ds.;

    über *eno- in gr. ἔνη usw. siehe besonderes Stichwort.

    Zu e- auch die Komparativbildung av. atāra- `dieser, der von beiden', ds., alb. ját()rë `anderer', umbr. etro- `anderer', lat. in cēterus `der andere oder übrige', aksl. eterъ, jeterъ `irgendwer', Pl. jeteri(ji) `einige', nsorb. wótery.

    ed (Nom. Akk. Sg. n.): über lat. ecce, mēd s. oben; av. at̃ zur Hervorhebung des vorhergehenden Wortes (wie it_, s. unten; Bartholomae Altiran. Wb. 67); wohl auch in aksl. jed-inъ, -ьпъ `einer' als `*gerade, nur einer'; ob auch ksl. jede, kyjь `quidam' aus gedoppeltem *ed-ed oder nach ide im Ausgang gerichtetem *ed? (Berneker 261, bestritten von Brückner KZ. 45, 302, vgl. MeilletSlave comm.2 444.)

    ēd und ōd (Abl.): ai. āt `darauf; und; (im Nachsatz) so', av. āat̃ `darauf, dann; und; aber; denn', ostlit. ė̃ `und aber' (aksl. i `und' ist eher *ei), lit. `und, aber' = aksl. a `aber'.

    ei (Lok.): gr. εἰ `*so, wenn' (εἶ-τα `dann', εἴ-θε `möchte doch!', ἐπ-εί (vgl. el. ἐπ-ή) `da', ἔπ-ειτα; daneben dial. αἰ, Lok. des f. St. ᾱ, und ἠ Instr. `wenn'; aksl. i `und, auch' (vgl. ti `und' vom St. *to-; von Brückner KZ. 46, 203 dagegen = lit. teĩ gesetzt), got. -ei Relativpartikel (vgl. þei vom St. *to- in gleicher Geltung), z. B. sa-ei `welcher', nach Junker KZ. 43, 348 auch die arm. Abl.-Endung -ē. Siehe auch unten ī-.

    em (alat. em, s. oben S. 282) liegt vor in gr. ἔνθα `da, dahin, damals', rel. `wo, wohin, woher', ἔνθεν `von da, von wo' usw. (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 628); über air. and s. oben S. 37 und vgl. kypr. ἄνδα αὕτη.

    e-tos: ai. -taḥ `von hier' (s. unter eti).

    i: wahrscheinlich im Lok. auf idg. -i; ferner die Grundlage der Komparativbildung *i-tero-: ai. i-tara- `der andere' (neuiran. Entsprechungen bei Bartholomae IF. 38, 26 f.);

    lat. íterum `zum andern, zum zweiten Male'; ferner in ai. i-va `wie' (vgl. oben ἠ-ε `wie'); in gr. ἰ-δέ `und' (vgl. ἠ-δέ).

    i-dha und i-dhe:

    ai. i-há, prākr. idha, av. iδa `hier';

    gr. ἰθαγενής `(*hier geboren', daher:) eingeboren, rechtmäßig geboren' (über ἰθαιγενής s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 448);

    lat. ibī `da, dort' (die Lautentwicklung dh zu f, b nach ubī; im Auslaut nach den Lokativen der o-St. gerichtet), umbr. ife `ibī, еō', ifont `ibīdem' (die ar. und ital. Formen könnten an sich auch -dhe enthalten, vgl. ai. ku-ha = aksl. kъ-de `wo', sь-de `hier' und Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6274);

    mcymr. yd, у ncymr. ydd Verbalpartikel, corn. yz, yth-, bret. ez-? (s. Pedersen KG. II 234, Lewis-Pedersen 243, Thurneysen Gr. 324 f.); dazu auch air. infigiertes -id- aus *id(h)e oder*id(h)i.

    i-t(h)-: ai. itthā́, itthā́d `hier, dort', av. iþā̆ `so', ai. itthám `so' und mit -t- (-tǝ oder-ti?) ai. íti `so'; lat. ita `so', item `ebenso, ebenfalls', umbr. itek `ita', mcymr. Präverb yt-, ncymr. yd-, z. B. in yr yd-wyf `ich bin'; lit. dial. it `durchaus; wie', ìt, ỹt `ganz, sehr', lett. it, itin `recht, eben'.

    ī́ (betont zur Verstärkung eines deiktischen Wortes, unbetont hinter einem relativ gebrauchten Wort):

    ai. ī́ (auch ī́m), av. ī́ hervorhebend nachgestellt, nach Relativ in ved. yad-ī;

    gr. οὑτοσ-ί̄, -ί̄ν (= ai. īm? oder erst jüngere Erw. von -ī́ ?), ἐκεινοσ-ί:, el. το-ΐ;

    umbr. wohl in po-ei `qui' (usw), lat. in utī (aus *uta-ī);

    air. (h)ī deiktische Partikel und Stützpartikel vor Relativsätzen;

    got. -ei Relativpartikel in sa-ei, iz-ei, ik-ei hingegen wohl idg. *ei, s. oben;

    aksl. verstärkend in to-i (s. Berneker 416), aksl. e-i `ja, wahrlich' (? Berneker 296).

    Auch im 1. Gliede von ai. ī-dr̥c̨- `so aussehend, so geartet', lit. ý-pačiai `besonders', y-patùs `einsam, allein, abgesondert, eigentümlich'.

    Zweifelhaft, ob aus idg. *ei oder ī: ags. ī́dæges `desselben Tages', īsiðes `zu gleicher Zeit', īlca (*ī-līca) `derselbe', womit vielleicht anord. ī dag `heute' (obwohl als Präp. ī gefühlt) und die darnach gebildeten ī gǣr `gestern', ī fjǫrð `πέρυσι' zusammenhängen;

    unklar ist āi (Lok. fem. in adverbieller Erstarrung) in ai. āi-šámaḥ adv. `heuer', Bed. `gerade an dém - demselben' wie gr. ἰῳ̃ ἤματι, s. Schulze KZ. 42, 96 = Kl. Schr. 5396, Holthausen KZ. 47, 310, Junker KZ. 43, 438 f., der mit dem ai. Worte auch arm. aižm aus *ai žam vereinigt. Dasselbe *āi in Verbindung mit den Pron.-St. *k̂o-, *to-, *no- enthalten die arm. Demonstrativa ai-s, ai-d, ai-n (Junker ааО.); vgl. Benveniste Origines 129 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 548 f.

    i̯ām (= Akk. Sg. f.): lat. iam `jetzt, bereits, schon', got. ja, ahd. jā̆ `ja'; mit der Endung des Lok. Sg. auf *-ou- der u-Stämme: *i̯ou, *i̯u `schon' (von Kretschmer KZ. 31, 466 dagegen zu *i̯eu- `jung' gestellt) : lit. jaũ `schon', lett. jàu, aksl. ju `schon', schwundstufig got. ahd. as. ags. ju `schon' (die Bildung hätte Vergleichbares an got. þau, þau-h, ags. þea-h, ai. tú `aber' zum St. *to-).

    i̯āi (== Lok. Sg. f.): got. jai `fürwahr', nhd. (jeh), umbr. ie etwa `iam' in ie-pru, ie-pi; aber cymr. ie (zweisilbig) `ja' aus mcymr. ī-ef `dies (ist) es'.

    D. Zusammensetzungen und Ableitungen (soweit nicht oben eingereiht):

    ai. ē-šá, ē-šā́, ē-tát, av. аēšа-, aēta- `der da' (*ei-so, -to-, während arm. aid aus *āi-to-, s. oben; osk. umbr. eiso-, ero- dagegen aus dem Gen. Pl. *eisōm);

    (m)arm. i-sa, i-ta, i-na Demin. aus *ei-k̂o-, -to-, -no- (Junker KZ. 43, 346 f.);

    ai. ē-vá, ē-vá-m `so', wozu mit der Bedeutungs-Entw. `gerade só, gerade dér - nur dér - der allein, der eine';

    av. aēva-, apers. aiva- `ein, einzig, allein', gr. οἶος, kypr. οἶος `allein' (idg. *oiu̯e, *oiu̯os); s. auch oben S. 75.

    oi-nos: ai. ē-na- `er' (kann auch *ei-no- sein);

    arm. -in der Identitätsadverbia andrēn `ebendort', astēn `ebenhier', vielleicht auch der Identitätspronomina so-in `derselbe hier', do-in `derselbe da', no-in `derselbe dort' (`gerade der, ein und derselbe'; *oino-s zunächst zu ēn, noch in der Bedeutung `Gott', d. h. `der eine', und in so-in usw. zu -in geschwächt, Junker KZ. 43, 342; für so-in erwägt er auch *k̂o- + ĕnos); anders Meillet Esquisse 88;

    gr. οἶνος, οἶνη `eins auf dem Würfel';

    lat. ūnus, alt oinos;

    air. ōen `ein'; cymr. bret. corn. un `ein (auch unbestimmter Artikel)';

    got. ains, ahd. ein, anord. einn (hierher gehört altnord. einka `besonders' und weiter ekkja `Witwe', ekkill `Witwer');

    apr. ains (f. ainā) `ein', ablaut. lit. ýnas und ìnas `recht, wirklich'; daneben mit präfig. Partikel (?):

    lit. víenas, lett. viêns `ein' (wegen lit. vičveĩnelis `ganz allein' aus *einos), ablaut. lett. vińš `er' (*vini̯as; vgl. skr. ȉn aus *ēino-); s. Trautmann 3, Endzelin Lett. Gr. 356, 381 f.

    aksl. inъ `unus' und `alius', ino-rogъ `Einhorn', inǫ `in einem fort, immer', inokъ `solus' (= got. ainaha `einzig', lat. ūnicus, anord. einga, ags. ānga, ahd. einac, as. ēnag, nhd. einig), woneben aksl. jed-inъ (zum 1. Glied, wohl idg. *ed, s. oben) `ein', woraus durch Kürzung in längeren Flexionsformen z. B. jednogo (geschrieben jedьnogo), russ. odinъ, odnogo.

    Mit Formans -ko- (wie ai. dviká `aus zweien bestehend') ai. ēka- `unus', ēkatī́ya `der eine', urind. (im hitt. Text) aika-vartana `eine Drehung' (Kretschmer KZ. 55, 93); über lat. ūnicus, got. ainaha, aksl. inokъ s. oben

    Mit Formans -go- got. ainakls `alleinstehend' (auch oben anord. einka usw.), ksl. inogъ `μονίος, γρύψ'; s. Feist 22 f.

    Entsprechende Zusammenrückungen mit e- (z. B. ai. asā́u) und āi- (ai. āišámaḥ, arm. ain usw.) s. oben.

References: WP. I 95 ff., WH. I 368 f., 399 f., 409, 671, 720 ff., 869, Trautmann 3, 65, 72, 105, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 548, 588, 608, 613 f., 628 f., 651.
Pages: 281-286
PIE database: PIE database

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a deictic root
Russian meaning: дейктическая основа
Turkic: *ɨ-na-
Mongolian: *i-nu-
Tungus-Manchu: *i
Korean: *í
Japanese: *i
Comments: SKE 66, ОСНЯ 1, 271-272, АПиПЯЯ 56-57, 297.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ɨ-na-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Turkmen: ɨna-ru
Halaj: ɨ́na
Tuva: ɨnda `there', ɨndɨɣ 'such'
Tofalar: ɨnda `there'

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *i-nu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 3d p. possessive pronoun
Russian meaning: притяж. местоим. 3 л.
Written Mongolian: inu- (L 412)
Middle Mongolian: ino (Gen.) (HYt, SH)
Dagur: īn 'he; this, that' (Тод. Даг. 146)
Mogol: ini ~ ni ~ ne ~ i (Weiers)

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *i
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 3d p. deictic stem
Russian meaning: указательная основа 3 л.
Spoken Manchu: ī 'he, she' (2877)
Literary Manchu: i; ineku 'the same'
Jurchen: in
Solon: ini 'his'
Comments: ТМС 1, 315, 319.

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *í
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: this
Russian meaning: этот
Modern Korean: i
Middle Korean:
Comments: Nam 397, KED 1316.

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *i
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Old Japanese: i
Comments: JLTT 420.

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1265
Proto: *jo
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: that; some, each
German meaning: der (die, das); irgendein, jeder (<- ?der, jener)
Finnish: jo-: joka 1. 'der (die, das)', 2. 'jeder, -e, -es', jokainen 'jeder, ein jeder', jokin 'irgendein, einige' (Finn. jotakin ? > Est. dial. jodagi), joku 'irgendein, jemand', jos 'wenn, falls, vorausgesetzt', jotta 'damit, auf daß'
Estonian: jos (dial.) 'jos; wenn, falls'
Saam (Lapp): juo- (N): juogâ 'something, something or other', juokke ~ juokkĕ 'each, every', ? jǫ̈s ~ jus ~ juos 'if, supposing', L juo- : juoka 'ein, irgendein', juohkka (-e) 'jeder', ? jus 'wenn, falls', juhte 'denn, daß', K (465) T jikke, ji̊ikke, Kld. juikke, Not. ju(o)ihke, A jukke, juikk 'jeder', ? (T. I. Itk., WbKKlp. 69) Ko. P jos 'wenn'
Mordovian: ju- (juza) (E): juza toza (čijńä) '(er läuft) hin und her'
Mari (Cheremis): ju- : KB juž, U B južo 'irgendein, jemand', (Ramst.) KB juš, juž 'etliche'.
K. Redei's notes: Vgl. ieur. *i̯o- (Relativstamm): altind. yáh, yā́, yát 'wer, welcher', gr. `os 'wer'. Finn. ka, kainen, kin, s, tta, läpp. gä, kke, mord. za, tscher. š, ž, žo usw. sind Ableitungs- bzw. Kasussuffixe. Die läpp. Belege mit ? sind möglicherweise Entlehnungen aus finn. jos. Der erschlossene Pronominalstamm dürfte ursprünglich als Demonstrativpronomen fungiert haben (vgl. Mord.), woraus die späteren Relativ- und Indefinitpronomina entstanden sind.
Addenda: Kar. (KKS) joka 'joka, jokainen; der (die, das); jeder, ein jeder'; Wot. (SKES) jekajeka 'joka; jeder, ein jeder'
References: Thomsen, Einfl. 34, SamlAfh. 2:82; Anderson, Stud. 46:79; Paasonen: FUF 6:114; Wichmann: FUFA 16:43; Ojansuu: AUFA 1/3:92, 95; Sköld: FUF 18:218; Collinder, IUrSprg. 57, UAJb. 24/3-4:17, AUU 1/4:119,143; Jensen: Hirt-Festschr. 2:176; Posti: FUF 31:45; E. Itkonen: FUF 31:161, 196, LpChr. 131; SKES; Joki: MSFOu. 151:264.

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *hi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: указ. местоимение
English meaning: deictic stem
Georgian: i-
Megrel: i-
Svan: i-
Laz: hi-, i-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 99, EWK 577. См. МСНЯ 1, 270-272 (ностр. *ʔi / *ʔe), Бомхард 1996, 189; NCED 214-215 (ПСК *ʔi).

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HV
Meaning : this
Eurasiatic : *ʔi (*hi)
Afroasiatic : ESem. *ji- 'this', Eg. *Vj, Berb. *ʔaj-
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔi
Austric : PAN *ia, PAA *ʔE 'this, that'
Amerind (misc.) : *iʔ 'he / she' (R 363) [+ A]; *ya 'that' (R 738) [+ A K]
Reference : GE 119 *ʔi.

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔi
Meaning: this
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʔi
Sino-Tibetan: *ʔĭ
Burushaski: *i-
Comments and references : HGC 22, NSC 64 *ʔi.

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this
Proto-Nakh: *ʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔi-/*ji-
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔi-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔi
Proto-West Caucasian: *jA
Notes: A common NC demonstrative stem, in the majority of languages used for near deixis, thus the meaning "this" may be safely reconstructed. See Abdokov 1983, 138.

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative pronoun
Chechen: i(-za)
Ingush: i-z
Batsbi: e, i
Comments: The stem *ʔi (with vacillation between i and e in Bacb.) is the normal pronoun for near deixis in Bacb.; in Chech./Ing. it designates the second degree of nearness and is also the standard 3d person pronoun.

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʔi-/*ji-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Tsezi: je-da, ji-si
Inkhokvari: j-u, i-du
Comments: PTsKh *ʔi-/*ji-, used for both near (Tsez. je-da, Inkh. i-du) and far (Tsez. ji-si, Inkh. j-u) deixis. It is possible that hi- in Gin. hi-ba-go 'that' also goes back to this root, but has been mixed with another deictic stem *ha-.

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʔi-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative stem
Akusha: i-š,i-l
Chiragh: ī
Comments: Used for near deixis in Chir., and generally in all demonstrative pronouns (joined to other deictic particles) in Ak. Cf. also Chir. j-aʕ-ma 'here'.

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative pronoun
Lezghian: i
Tsakhur: i-n
Archi: ja-t, ja-mu
Comment: The Arch. form (ja-) is probably a compound of pronoun stems *ʔi- and *ʔa-; cf. also a separate i- in i-ši-k 'here', i-ši-š 'from here'.

    See Алексеев 1985, 75.


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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *jA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Abkhaz: ja-rá
Abaza: ja-ra
Adyghe: jǝj
Kabardian: jǝ, jej
Ubykh: jǝ-
Comments: In PAT used as the 3d p. pronoun *ja-ra 'he'; cf. also *jǝ (Abkh. j(ǝ)-, Abaz. j(ǝ)- the verbal prefix of the 3d person) and *-jǝ within complex demonstrative stems (*a-nǝ-jǝ 'that', *a-rǝ-jǝ 'this' > Abkh., Abaz. ani, ari etc.).

    In AK the root functions as the 3d p. possessive prefix (jǝ- 'his'), see Шагиров 1, 180.

    In Ubykh jǝ- is the demonstrative pronoun expressing near deixis ('this'); the same morpheme is probably used as a personal prefix of the 3d p. pl.


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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʔĭ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this
Chinese: *ʔij this.
Burmese: i this.
Lushai: i this.
Kiranti: *ʔè
Comments: PK *ʔè he. Luce 10.

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Chinese characters :

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Modern (Beijing) reading: yī
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʔij
Classic Old Chinese: ʔij
Western Han Chinese: ʔjǝj
Eastern Han Chinese: ʔjǝj
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʔjij
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʔjij
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʔji
Middle Chinese: ʔji
English meaning : personal equational copula: it is, they are; he, she, it, they
Russian meaning[s]: 1) вост. диал. он; тот; 2) она; 3) звукоподражание, см. 咿; 4) сокр. г. Кульджа
Comments: A rather universal personal stem, thus Viet. is not necessarily borrowed.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 9
Four-angle index: 4146
Karlgren code: 0604 a-c
Vietnamese reading: y
Shijing occurrences: 24.3, 33.1, 35.2, 35.6

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ʔè-
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: he
Sunwar: e-ko
Limbu: hen he, that
Yamphu: i- in i-go 'this'

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: igo
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: demons.pron.
Meaning: this, this one; igosäʔ ; igoeʔ ; igweʔ ; igonäʔ ergative; igoji non-singular independent form; igha plural dependent form; ighaji plural independent form
Comments: igo pu:k.noʔ pu:k.käʔ.n.e. (this arise.EXF arise.come_up.NNP.FCT) This [guy] really won't get up. igo (this house.ASS) This is the house. igo.ji.go kam.noʔ (this.NS.TH habituate.EXF habituate.know.о3.3NS.NNP) He didn't know at all how to make [the oxen] get used to each other. igh.a mo.dok.mi la:gi aŋ.ʔitt.u.ŋ.ha. (this.PLNR lāgi make.PF.о3.EXAG.PLNR) I have made this [beer] for that reason. Ra:iman.ji igh.a.ji.go Ba:ja ceŋ.ghu.ji jammai ci:p.pes.a.mi. (that.ELA Rāiman.NS this.PLNR.NS.TH Ba:ja cut.AP.NS jammai flee.RES.PT.3PL) Then Rāiman and his companions, these ones that killed Ba:ja, all fled.
Nepali: yo, yī, yinīharū

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *i-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: that
Yasin: in
Hunza: iné
Nagar: iné

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *ʔV
Meaning: he, this
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *ʔV
Austroasiatic meaning: this, that
Miao-Yao parallels: *ji that
Proto-Austronesian: *ia
Austronesian meaning: 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ʔV
Meaning: this, that
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Bahnaric: HAR ʔɛ
Proto-Palaungic: *ʔVh, *ʔV
Proto-Khmu: *ʔe

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Bahnar etymology :

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Meaning: that
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Bahnaric: VE ʔǝj
Harak: ʔɛ

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa: *ʔVh, *ʔV
Meaning: this
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology

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