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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *jimχ:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 butter 2 milk 3 fat (on meat) 4 boiled fat
Agul: jaχ 3
Tsakhur: jɨχI 4
Kryz: juχ 2
Budukh: juχ 2
Archi: inχ 1
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Burk. jaχʷ 'fat (on meat)'. For PL *χ: cf. Arch. erg. inχ:i. 4th class in all languages. -n- in Arch. is the regular reflex of *-m- (in this position -n- lacks in Arch.). Pharyngealization in Tsakh. is not clear (probably secondary, since none of other languages reflects it).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-agu,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *rĕnχ_wĂ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: butter
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *nV(r)χV
Proto-Lak: nah
Proto-Dargwa: *nerχ:
Proto-Lezghian: *jimχ:
Proto-West Caucasian: *rǝχʷǝ (~t-, d-)
Notes: The etymology seems plausible phonetically and semantically. See Abdokov 1983, 134.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *nV(r)χV ( ~ -q-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 butter, oil 2 fat
Avar: naχ 1,2
Chadakolob: naħ 1
Comments: Av. paradigm C (naχú-l, náχa-l, Chad. gen. naħú-l/niħí-l). Not clear is the relationship between this Av. form and Akhv. ĩχʷa, Tseg. iχʷan, Tl. iχʷam, Ratl. iχʷami 'boiled butter'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: nah
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: butter
Lak form: nah
Comments: 4th class. Cf. Khosr. nah id.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *nerχ:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: melted butter
Akusha: nerχ
Comments: Cf. also Ur. nirχ, Kub. nēχ, Kharb. nerχ:.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *rǝχʷǝ (~t-, d-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 butter (melted) 2 fat
Adyghe: tχʷǝ 1
Kabardian: tχʷǝ 1
Ubykh: tχʷǝ 2
Comments: PAK *tχʷǝ. Ub. tχʷǝ is hardly a loan from AK because of semantic difference. Despite Abdokov 1973, 68 and Shagirov 1,78 PAT *xʷǝ-ša 'melted butter' can not be related (the correspondence PAT *xʷ : PAK *χʷ does not exist).

    Judging from PAK t- and Ub. t- in Anlaut *r-, *t- or *d- can be reconstructed; *r- is most probable because of external correspondences.

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *rĕ́nχwĂ
Meaning: food, butter
North Caucasian: *rĕnχ_wĂ
Sino-Tibetan: *r[ă]ŋ
Basque: *ɦaragi
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *r[ă]ŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: provisions
Chinese: *raŋ grain, provisions.
Tibetan: ãgraŋ-ba to satisfy with food.
Kachin: lǝreŋ4 the vitals.
Lepcha: kă-ruŋ meat or drink prepared for special occasions; ambrosia, nectar
Comments: Cf. also Idu *b-reŋ, Daofu bjoŋ (noŋ) 'meat'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: liáng
Preclassic Old Chinese: raŋ
Classic Old Chinese: raŋ
Western Han Chinese: raŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: reŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: leŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: leŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: leŋ
Middle Chinese: laŋ
English meaning : grain, yield of grain, provisions
Russian meaning[s]: 1) хлеб (в зерне); хлебный провиант; провиант; 2) продналог; земельный налог
Comments: For *r cf. Xiamen liɔŋ2, Chaozhou nĩẽ2, Fuzhou lioŋ2, Jianou liɔŋ2.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 119
Four-angle index: 443
Karlgren code: 0737 d-e
Vietnamese reading: lu'o'ng
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 2366
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 宕開三平陽來
ZIHUI: 4752 2318
Beijing: liaŋ 12
Jinan: liaŋ 12
Xi'an: liaŋ 12
Taiyuan: lia_̃ 1
Hankou: niaŋ 12
Chengdu: niaŋ 12
Yangzhou: liâŋ 12
Suzhou: liaŋ 12
Wenzhou: li 12
Changsha: nian 12
Shuangfeng: niaŋ 12
Nanchang: liɔŋ 31
Meixian: liɔŋ 12
Guangzhou: lö_ŋ 12
Xiamen: liɔŋ 12
Chaozhou: niẽ 12
Fuzhou: luɔŋ 12
Shanghai: liã 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: liaŋ 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ɦaragi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: meat, flesh
Gipuzkoan: aragi
High Navarrese: aragi
Low Navarrese: haragi
Lapurdian: haragi
Zuberoan: arági
Roncalese: aragi
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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