Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Lezghian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Lezghian: *juk:ɨ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 right 2 good
Rutul: jigi-d 1 (Shin)
Tsakhur: jugna 2
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,

Search within this database


North Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North Caucasian: *=ĭnk_wV (/=ĭk_wVn; ~ ɨ̆)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: right, good
Proto-Nakh: *dik-/*dak-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔinkʷV- / *kʷVnV-r-
Proto-Tsezian: *=ɨgV (~-ǝ-)
Proto-Dargwa: *d-uka
Proto-Lezghian: *juk:ɨ-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Seems both semantically ("good" - "right" is a common correlation) and phonetically reliable. Cf. also Urart. gunǝ 'right (not left), true' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 32).

    The same root is probably represented in PEC *k_wVnV 'a conditional particle' > Ud. -gin, Khin. -k:ʷa, Lak. -kun, Tsez. -kin et al.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

Search within this database


Nakh etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Nakh: *dik-/*dak-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: good
Chechen: dika
Ingush: dika
Batsbi: dakĩ
Comments: Vocalism unclear: *dik-i(n) in Chech., Ing. (cf. also Chech. Usl. dikiŋ), but *dak-i(n) in Bacb.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

Search within this database


Avar-Andian etymology :

Search within this database
Protoform: *ʔinkʷV- / *kʷVnV-r-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: right
Avar: kʷarána-b
Chadakolob: kurána-b
Karata: inku-doƛ̣:
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Anch. inku-baƛ:a id.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

Search within this database


Tsezian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tsezian: *=ɨgV (~-ǝ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: good
Tsezi: =igu
Ginukh: =egi
Khvarshi: =agu
Inkhokvari: =ogu
Comments: PTsKh *=ǝg/u/.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

Search within this database


Dargwa etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dargwa: *d-uka
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: right
Akusha: duka (Kait.)
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *d=ĭk_wVn
Meaning: right; sufficient
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ĭnk_wV (/=ĭk_wVn; ~ ɨ̆)
Sino-Tibetan: *t(h)ī̆kʷ
Basque: *hon
Comments and references : If the comparison is correct, PST *t- must reflect an old class marker; or else the reconstruction should be *dĭk_w(Vn), with a reanalysis of *d- as a class marker in PNC. [On the other hand, in LDC 37-38 the ST form is compared with PAK *daʁʷa `good'].
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

Search within this database


Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tī̆kʷ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: good, sufficient
Chinese: *d_ikʷ fine, good.
Tibetan: sdug pretty, nice.
Burmese: thǝuk be worth, have certain value; be lucky.
Kachin: (H) thik be lucky (probably from Burm.).
Lushai: tōk be enough, sufficient, adequate.
Kiranti: *dǝ́k (/-ŋ; ~ *dók)
Comments: Here perhaps also Kanauri teg', Serdukpen a-dok 'big'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

Search within this database


Chinese characters :

Search within this database
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: shú
Preclassic Old Chinese: d(h)ikʷ
Classic Old Chinese: d(h)iuk
Western Han Chinese: d(h)jǝuk
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒ́(h)ǝuk
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒ́(h)ɨuk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒ́(h)uk
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒ́(h)uk
Middle Chinese: ʒ́ük
English meaning : be good
Russian meaning[s]: 1) чистый, ясный; 2) добродетельный; нравственный; 3) привлекательный; милый
Shuowen gloss: 清湛也.從水.叔聲.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 85
Four-angle index: 5947
Karlgren code: 1031 j
Shijing occurrences: 1.1, 28.4, 47.1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

Search within this database


Kiranti etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kiranti: *dǝ́k (/-ŋ; ~ *dók)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: sufficient
Tulung: ḍɔ̄-sǝ(t)- suffice,ḍokpu big, important
Kaling: 'donä suffice ('doŋɔ), ḍokpä (CSDP 'dokpä) sufficient
Limbu: tɛkmaʔ, -tɛkt-/-tɛk-
Yamphu: it-thuk full
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-yam,

Search within this database


Limbu dictionary :

Search within this database
Entry: tɛkmaʔ, -tɛkt-/-tɛk-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: 1) vi. 2) vt.
Meaning: 1) be sufficient; 2) sate, be sufficient for, reach
Comments: 1) tɔk tɛktɛ The rice was sufficient 2) tɔk kɛrɛk tɛktusi, khɛN mɛdɛktun The rice was enough for everybody to eat his fill, but wasn't enough to fill him; cf. kha:maʔ, ya:kmaʔ, yo:maʔ; cf. thɛkmaʔ.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

Search within this database


Yamphu dictionary :

Search within this database
Entry: itthuk
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: adj. & adv. & suffix.
Meaning: 1) full, heaped above the brim; 2) whole, entire.
Nepali: jhusī, bhari
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-nepali,

Search within this database


Basque etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Basque: *hon
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: good
Araban: on
Bizkaian: on
Gipuzkoan: on
High Navarrese: on
Low Navarrese: on, (arc) hon, (Donibane-Garazi) hun
Salazarese: on
Lapurdian: on
Baztanese: on
Aezkoan: on
Zuberoan: hun
Roncalese: on
Comments: The most archaic PSC form seems to be *=kUn- (> PAvar-Andian *kʷVnV-, Bsq *hon, Urart. gunǝ), with a common metathesis to *=ĭnkwV in most EC langs. Derivation from Lat. bonum is implausible.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : TVKV
Meaning : good, fit
Eurasiatic : *dUgV
Sino-Caucasian : *d=ĭk_wVn
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *dUgV
Meaning: to fit, be good
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *dheugh-
Altaic: *di̯òge
Kartvelian: Georg. gamo-dg- 'be useful, fit' (if not < 'stand')
References: ND 503 *d[ü]ga.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *dheughe-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to be ready, sufficient
Old Greek: tüŋkhánō, ft. téu̯ksomai̯, aor. étükhon, ep. etǘkhēsa, ep. conj. tetǘkhēi̯si, ep. opt. tetǘkhoi̯mi, p. en-etéu̯khthēn, pf. tetǘkhēka, ptc. -ēkṓs, -ēṓs, jungatt. ecc. téteukha, m.-p. (spät.) epi-téteu̯gmai̯ `das Ziel, den Zweck erreichen, treffen, antreffen, zufällig begegnen', intr. `sich treffen, zufällig zuteil werden, sich zufällig ereignen'; tǘkhǟ f. `Zufall, Ereignis, Glückszufall', Schicksal, Los', têu̯ksi-s f. `Erreichung', apó-, én-, epí-teu̯gma; téu̯khō, aor. têu̯ksai̯, -asthai̯, hom. tetükẹ̄̂n, -ésthai̯, p. tükhthē̂nai̯, pf. hom. teteu̯khṓs, m.-p. tétüktai̯, hom. tetéu̯khatai̯, tétuktai̯; va. tüktó-, teu̯któ- verfertigen, fertigbringen, herstellen; bereiten; veranstalten, verursachen', titǘskomai̯ `mache zurecht, ziele'; têu̯khos n. `Rüstzeug, Waffen, Ausrüstung'; téu̯ktōr, -oros m. `Verfertiger, Schöpfer', teu̯ktḗr m. `id.'; titǘskomai̯ `zielen; zurecht machen, bereiten, anschirren'
Slavic: *nedūgъ; *dūžjь(jь)
Baltic: *daũg-a- adj., *daũg-ia- c.
Germanic: *daug=, *dux-t-i- c., etc.
Celtic: *dugnā, *duglo- > Ir dūan `Gedicht', dūal `passend'
Russ. meaning: быть достаточным, готовым
References: WP I 847
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Vasmer's dictionary :

Search within this database
Word: ду́жий
Near etymology: "сильный", укр. ду́жий "мощный, крепкий", польск. duży "большой, сильный", dużo "много".
Further etymology: Родственно лит. daũg "много", лтш. daũdz, daudzi "много", padūgt "иметь время, возможность", гот. daug "годится", нов.-в.-н. taugen "годиться", Tugend "добродетель", греч. τυγχάνω, τεύξομαι "попадать, наталкиваться на что-либо", ирл. dúal "подходящий" (*duglo-); см. Мейе, MSl. 17, 63; М. -- Э. 1, 443, 3, 20; Бернекер 1, 217 и сл.; Гофман, Gr. Wb. 362 и сл., 377.
Pages: 1,550
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *daũg-a- adj., *daũg-ia- c.
Meaning: many
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: daũg, daugi(a) `viel', daũgi-s 'Vielheit'
Lettish: daũdz, daudzi 'viel'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Germanic: *daug=, *duxti-z, etc.
Meaning: be useful
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *dugan (daug) prt.-prs. `be useful'
Old Norse: duga wk. `taugen, nützen, helfen'
Norwegian: duga vb.
Swedish: duga vb.
Danish: duge vb.
Old English: dugan, 3 sg. dēag `es taugt, nützt'; gedīegan `ertragen, überstehen'; dǖhtig `kräftig'; dychtig, dohtig
English: doughty
Old Frisian: duga, 3 sg. daech
Old Saxon: dugan, 3 sg. dōg `es taugt, nützt'; ā-dōgian `aushalten, ordnen'
Middle Dutch: dōghen, dȫghen `deugen, baten', 3 sg. dooch; duchtich
Dutch: deugen; duchtig
Middle Low German: dȫgen `aushalten', ducht
Old High German: tugan, 3 sg. touc (9.Jh.) `es taugt, nützt'; tūht `Andrang, Ansturm' (1.J h.), anatūht (10.Jh.); { tüctic }
Middle High German: tugen, tügen (prs. touc, prt. tohte) 'von statten gehn, tüchtig, förderlich, brauchbar sein, kraft haben'; tuht, duht st. f. 'Andrang, Kraft, Gewalt, Tüchtigkeit'
German: taugen, tüchtig
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

Search within this database


Pokorny's dictionary :

Search within this database
Number: 417
Root: dheugh-
English meaning: to touch, press, milk
German meaning: `berühren (sich gut treffen), drücken, ausdrücken, melken, reichlich spenden'
Material: Indo-iran. *dhaugh- `melken' in ai. duháti, athem. dógdhi `melkt, milcht', die Wunschkuh Kāma-duh(ā) `die reichlich Spendende' (= gr. Τύχη), pers. dōɣ, dōxtän usw., apers. han-dugā `Proklamation' (vgl. lat. pro-mulgāre);

    gr. τυγχάνω (τεύξομαι, ἔτυχον, ἐτύχησα, τετύχηκα) `treffen, antreffen, zufällig begegnen; ein Ziel oder einen Zweck erreichen; intr. sich vorfinden, gerade wobei sein, zufallen', τύχη `Gelingen, Glückszufall, Schicksal, Los', Göttin Tύχη (wohl ursprüngl. eine Wunschkuh?); τεύχω (τεύξω, Aor. ἔτευξα, hom. τετυκει̃ν, Med. τετύκοντο, τετυκέσθαι - mit sek. k -, Perf. τετευχώς, τέτυκται, τετεύχαται) `tauglich herrichten, verfertigen, herstellen, veranlassen, hervorbringen', τιτύσκομαι `mache zurecht, ziele', τευ̃χος n. `alles Gemachte, Gerät, Geschirr, Zeug, bes. Rüstung, Rüstzeug, Waffen; Schiffsgerät; Geschirr, Gefäß';

    ir. dūan `Gedicht' (*dhughnā), dūal `passend' (*dhughlo-);

    aisl. Inf. duga, Präs. dugi, Prät. dugða `von Nutzen sein, taugen, glücken', Präteritopräsens got. daug, ags. dēag, as. dōg, ahd. toug `es taugt, nützt', Kaus. mnd. dӧ̄gen `aushalten', as. ā-dōgian `ds., ordnen', ags. gedīegan `ertragen, überstehen'; ahd. tuht `Tüchtigkeit, Kraft', mhd. tühtec, nhd. tüchtig = ags. dyhtig `kraftig' (über got. dauhts `Gastmahl' s. Feist 116);

    lit. daũg `viel', dáuginti `mehren'; russ. dúžij usw. `kräftig'.

References: WP. I 847, Benveniste BSL. 30, 73 f., Pisani REtIE. 1, 238 ff.
Pages: 271
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *di̯òge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: good, better
Russian meaning: хороший, лучше
Turkic: *jẹg-
Mongolian: *ǯaɣa
Korean: *tjōh-
Japanese: *dǝ̀-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 103, 275. Despite the meaning of the Chuvash form ("up") the Turk. root should be rather compared with this Korean and Japanese data than with Mong. degde- 'rise' etc. (see VEWT 194 with literature). On the latter root see under *tēga. The Mong. vocalism in *ǯaɣa is somewhat aberrant: it is probably a result of early vowel assimilation < *ǯiɣa (the variants ǯiɣa- and ǯaɣa- in WMong. interchange frequently).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *jẹg-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 better 2 upper part, surface
Russian meaning: 1 лучше, лучший 2 верх, поверхность
Old Turkic: jeg 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jeg 1 (MK)
Turkish: jeɣ, jej 1
Middle Turkic: jik 1 (AH)
Azerbaidzhan: jeg (dial.) 1
Turkmen: jeg 1
Chuvash: śi, śije 2
Comments: EDT 909-910, VEWT 194, ЭСТЯ 4, 165-166, TMN 4, 184-185, Федотов 2, 115-116.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *ǯaɣa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: good, well
Russian meaning: ладно, хорошо
Written Mongolian: ǯaɣa, (L 1022: zaɣa-bala 'for certain')
Middle Mongolian: ǯa'arin (SH) 'omen'
Khalkha: ʒā
Buriat:
Kalmuck: zā, zǟ, ǯǟ
Ordos: ǯā
Dongxian: ǯa
Dagur: ǯē, ǯā (Тод. Даг. 143), ǯē (MD 176)
Shary-Yoghur: ǯa
Monguor: ʒ́āri 'signe par lequel la divinité manifeste sa volonté' (SM 83), ʒ́ē-le- 'consentir' (SM 87)
Comments: KW 469, MGCD 416.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Korean etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Korean: *tjōh-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: good
Russian meaning: хороший
Modern Korean: čō- [čōh-]
Middle Korean: tjōh-
Comments: Nam 162, KED 1488.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

Search within this database


Japanese etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Japanese: *dǝ̀-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: good
Russian meaning: хороший
Old Japanese: jo-
Middle Japanese: jò-
Tokyo: í-, yó-
Kyoto: ḕ
Kagoshima: yò-
Shuri: ju-ta-
Comments: JLTT 845.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-shu,japet-comments,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
45446163769
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov