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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *č:aq̇ʷ(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bird, small bird
Tabasaran: žaq̇ʷ
Agul: žaq̇ʷ
Comment: Oblique base vowel and class unknown. Cf. also forms: Tab. Kand. ǯaq̇ʷ, Düb. ǯaq̇a, Ag. Bursh. ǯaq̇ʷ.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ǯăq̇wV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a k. of small bird
Proto-Nakh: *ǯaq̇
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *č̣iq̇ʷa(ra)
Proto-Tsezian: *č̣eq
Proto-Lezghian: *č:aq̇ʷ(a)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. There are certain phonetic irregularities (assimilation *ǯ- > *č̣- in PA and PC, with following dissimilation *č̣eq̇ > č̣eq in Gunz., absence of velarisation *q̇ʷ > ḳ in PA) which must be explained by the expressive nature of the root.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ǯaq̇
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a k. of small bird
Chechen: maž-žaq̇
Comments: The 1st component of Chech. mažžaq̇ "жулан" is maž- 'yellow' q.v. The word is isolated in Nakh, but has good external parallels.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *č̣iq̇ʷa(ra)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 quail 2 sparrow 3 bird
Avar: žužuḳ (RAS) 2
Andian language: č̣aq̇ʷara 1
Akhvakh: č̣ĩq̇a 2,3
Karata: č̣ʷaʔara 1
Comments: The Av. word is attested in the Russian-Avar dictionary; it is reduplicated, but otherwise phonologically regular. In Proto-Andian an assimilation (*ž- > č̣-) had occurred; note also the irregular preservation of labialised q̇ʷ (which should have passed into -ḳ- like in Av.), and the irregular nasalisation in Akhv. All these features must be explained by the expressive character of the root.oot.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *č̣eq
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bird
Gunzib: č̣eq
Comments: Isolated within Tsezian, but with good external parallels.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ǯăq̇wV
Meaning: small bird
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ǯăq̇wV
Sino-Tibetan: *ćĕkʷ
Yenisseian: *čukola ?
Comments and references : HGC 28.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ćĕkʷ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sparrow, small bird
Chinese: *ćekʷ sparrow.
Burmese: ? ćhak-rak 'starling'
Kiranti: *cík
Comments: Cf. also Trung pɨ-ćiʔ, Anong ćha 'bird', Miji bu-zu, Kaike hyu-ʒu, Sichuan *ʒ́V 'bird'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: què
Preclassic Old Chinese: ćekʷ
Classic Old Chinese: ceuk
Western Han Chinese: cjauk
Eastern Han Chinese: cjauk
Early Postclassic Chinese: cjauk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cjak
Late Postclassic Chinese: cjak
Middle Chinese: cjak
English meaning : sparrow
Russian meaning[s]: воробей (Passer montanus); пташка
Comments: For OC *c- and -a- can also be reconstructed (there are no rhymes and hsieh-sheng connections for the word) - but the reconstruction *ćekʷ seems preferable because the word is written as 爵 (*ćekʷ) in Late Chou. Initial q- in Mandarin is unclear. The regular Sino-Viet. reflex is tu'ó'c; chóc is used in the compound chim chóc 'birds' (note that 雀 is also used as a general name for all small birds in Early Chinese).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 172
Four-angle index: 950
Karlgren code: 1122 a-b
Vietnamese reading: chóc
Jianchuan Bai: co6
Dali Bai: co6
Bijiang Bai: co6
Shijing occurrences: 17.2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *cík ( ~ ʔc-)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: bird
Sunwar: 'cīkbi
Tulung: cǝkpu
Kulung: cou (Toba)
Comments: Toba 87 *calpu (erroneously adding Kal. sa_lpu).
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-sun,kiret-tul,kiret-kul,kiret-notes,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *čukola
Meaning: a k. of bird (кедровка, Zedernnußhäher)
Ket: túkɔĺa, MKet. tu:ĺ3, tuʔuĺ
Yug: čóguĺa
Comments: Werner 2, 285 (w.r.). Rather strange is the preservation of -k- in Ket.
yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVKV
Meaning : bird
Eurasiatic : *[č`w]VHḳV
Afroasiatic : *ǯigal- (?); cf. also *cagaḥ-
Sino-Caucasian : *ǯăq̇wV
Amerind (misc.) : *c̣ik 'bird' (R 57) [+ A]
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *[č`w]VHḳV
Meaning: a k. of bird
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *si̯ŭ̀[k]i ( ~ *š-)
Uralic: *śOkćV
Kartvelian: *čxiḳw-
Comments: Yupik *cǝɣuʁ-a- ~ *ǝcɣuʁ-a-. Expected *č- in Ur. (assimilation?)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-notes,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *si̯ŭ̀[k]i ( ~ *š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of bird
Russian meaning: вид птицы
Turkic: *süglin
Korean: *skuǝ̀ŋ
Japanese: *sìnkî
Comments: Korean has a frequent loss of vowel between a fricative and a stop. The medial consonant is not quite clear: perhaps Turk. *süglen < *süklen with a secondary voicing.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *süglin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pheasant
Russian meaning: фазан
Karakhanid: süglin, süvlin (MK)
Turkish: sülün
Middle Turkic: sülgün, süglün (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: sülgün
Turkmen: sülgün
Khakassian: sülen 'heron'
Shor: šülen 'heron, stork' (?)
Karakalpak: süjlin (dial.)
Comments: VEWT 435, EDT 820-821, ЭСТЯ 7.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *skuǝ̀ŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pheasant
Russian meaning: фазан
Modern Korean: k:wǝŋ
Middle Korean: skuǝ̀ŋ
Comments: Nam 64, KED 225.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sìnkî
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: woodcock, snipe
Russian meaning: вальдшнеп, бекас
Old Japanese: sigji
Middle Japanese: sìgi
Tokyo: shígi
Kyoto: shìgî
Comments: JLTT 523.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1624
Proto: *śOkćV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: grouse, black-cock
German meaning: Auerhahn; Tetrao urogallus
Saam (Lapp): čuk'ča -vč- (N) 'tetrao urogallus', tjuktjē (L), čuiχč (Kld.)
Mordovian: suvoźej, suvoźeŋ, suźij (E), suvoźi, śuźi (M)
Mari (Cheremis): suzǝ̑ (KB), suzo, šuźo (U B), subuzo (Troick.; = *suwuzo), šuźŭ (M)
Komi (Zyrian): ćukći (Peč. I)
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-kom,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *čxiḳw-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: сойка
English meaning: jaybird
Georgian: čxiḳv-
Megrel: čxviḳ-
Laz: čxviḳ-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 222, EWK 443.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ǯigʷal-/*gawzal-
Meaning: ḳ. of bird
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *gawzal- 'brood'
Western Chadic: *ǯigʷal- 'griffon-vulture'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ǯigal- 'bird'
Notes: Scarce data.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-agw,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 2383
Proto-Semitic: *gawzal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: brood
Hebrew: gōzāl 'turtledove; young eagle' [KB 182], pB. 'brood, chick, esp. pigeon' [Ja. 220]. // The meaing 'young pigeon', prominent in post-Biblical Hebrew, is clear in Gn 15.9 where g. (together with tōr 'turtle-dove') is mentioned as a sacrificial animal. The meaning 'young eagle' is attested in Dt 32.11: kǝnäšär yāʕīr ḳinnō // ʕal-gōzālāw yǝraḥēp 'like an eagle watching his nest // hovering over his youngs').
Judaic Aramaic: gōzālā 'brood, chick, esp. pigeon' [Ja. 220], gōzāl 'young bird' [ibid. 122], [Levy WTM I 318].
Syrian Aramaic: zūgallā 'pullus columbinus' [Brock. 188], [PS 1081] (metathesis).
Arabic: ǯawzal- 'petit (de pigeon, ou d'un autre oiseau de l'espèce)' [BK 1 290], [LA XI 110].
Notes: Note Amh. gǝz(z)al 'bird of prey which breaks open the long bones for their marrow by // dropping them on rocks from a height' [K 2029]. // [DRS 107], [KB 182], [Firmage 1154]: Hbr., Arm., Arb.
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-hbr,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ǯigʷal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'griffon-vulture'
Hausa: ǯígàl
Notes: cp. Paa ǯágwùr 'hawk' [MS] ? < ǯVgVl-Vr
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-notes,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ǯigal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'bird'
Bilin: ǯaɣalā́ [R Bil], ǯäḫala [Appl IC]
Khamir: zilk (pl.)
Khamta: zilaa
Qwara: ǯäkel (pl.)
Dembea: ǯeelaa
Qemant: ǯeelaa
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-bil,agwet-xmr,agwet-xmt,agwet-kwr,agwet-dmb,agwet-kem,

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