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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *jVr
Meaning: stand (up)
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *jV:r
Austroasiatic meaning: stand up
Proto-Thai: jɨ:n.A to stand CK
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *jV:r
Meaning: stand up
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: jɨ:n.A to stand CK
Proto-Katuic: *juor
Proto-Bahnaric: NWB *ju:r
Khmer: ʒhɔ:r < OK ʒhar E?
Proto-Vietic: [*jǝlʔ]
Proto-Monic: M ja:
Proto-Palaungic: An *cɔ:r I?
Proto-Khmu: *jǝ:r
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,aaet-vim,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *juor
Meaning: get up, stand up
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *juor
Proto-East Katuic: *juor
References: DF-109; P-167; TK16.408; TK16.285
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *juor
Meaning: get up, stand up
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: juor
Bru Van Keu meaning: to wake up, to get up
So: juar.B
So meaning: to awaken by oneself
Bru: juǝr.B
Bru meaning: to stand up; ʔǝjuǝr.B to help to get up
Kui: ju:.B VT?
Kui meaning: to get up (from reclining or sitting position)
Kuay: ju:r.N
Kuay meaning: wake up
Ngeu: jɨ:j.B
Ngeu meaning: wake up
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-wpre,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,wkatet-so,wkatet-some,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,wkatet-kui,wkatet-kuime,wkatet-kuay,wkatet-kuayme,wkatet-ngeu,wkatet-nyeume,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *juor / *juǝr
Meaning: get up, stand up
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: jo:r.T
Pakoh meaning: to get up, arise
Taojh: pazu:r
Taojh meaning: awake (PT-146)
Lao Katu: jur
Lao Katu meaning: to get up, rise
Ngeq: ju:r
Ngeq meaning: to rise up
Kri: ju:r
Chatong: ju:r
Kantu dialects: ju:r
Triw: ju:r
Dakkan dialects (1): ju:r
Dakkan dialects (2): ju:r
Dakkan meaning: wake up
Katu dialects (1): ju:r
Katu meaning: rise; ascend
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-tao,ekatet-taome,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-kr,ekatet-ct,ekatet-kntt,ekatet-tr,ekatet-dkl,ekatet-dkk,ekatet-dkme,ekatet-and,ekatet-katme,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: *ju:r
Meaning: get up, stand up
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Northwest-Bahnaric: *ju:r
banet-meaning,banet-prnum,banet-nwb,

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North-West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-North-West- Bahnaric: *ju:r
Meaning: get up, stand up
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Tariang: ju:r
Kaseng: ju:r
Yaeh: ju:r
References: TB17.394
nwbet-meaning,nwbet-prnum,nwbet-tr,nwbet-ks,nwbet-yh,nwbet-refer,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: ʒhar
Meaning: to stand, be standing; ʒ<ǝm>har being on one's feet
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: ʒhar
Old Khmer Meaning: to stand up
References: P197, JP72
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *jǝlʔ , ʔ-
Meaning: wake
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: dấy
Vietnamese meaning: raise (PH); dậy rise, get up, stand up (PH)
Muong dialect: jǝ̆l.5
Nguon dialect (1): jǝ̆n.4
Nguon dialect (2): zǝ̆n.4
Arem: ʔajalʔ
Proto-Ruc: *Cǝlh.3, ʔ-
Ruc (Russian field rec.): ʔarǝlh.3
Ruc (Ferlus' rec.): ʔajǝl.3
Ruc meaning: wake
Thavung-So: pajɨ:n.2
Thavung-So meaning: wake up; jɨ:n.2 get up
Notes: F-97: *ʔa-jǝrʔ
References: NVL142; TC77
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-vietme,vimet-anng,vimet-ncl,vimet-nyt,vimet-arem,vimet-prru,vimet-rucr,vimet-rntf,vimet-rucme,vimet-so,vimet-some,vimet-note,vimet-bib,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa:
Meaning: to stand
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Angku: *cɔ:r
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-pran,

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Angku etymology :

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Proto-Angku: *cɔ:r
Meaning: stand
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Pangpin: cɔr.51
U: tsɔ.2 ???
Khamet: sɨŋ.55 ćan.31 EE
References: WW-482; S-112
pranet-meaning,pranet-prnum,pranet-phu,pranet-u,pranet-kme,pranet-bib,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVRV
Meaning : come, go; rise
Eurasiatic : *Horä
Afroasiatic : Cush. *ʔurr- 'top', Berb. *wu/ir 'be above' (also Chad., Cush. 'stand')
Sino-Caucasian : *HVrV
Austric : *jVr 'stand up'; PAN *aRi 'come, let's go'
Reference : GE 61 *ari (only ST and AN).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *Horä
Meaning: to rise; move, go
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *or(u̯)-, *ŏr-ei̯ǝ-; *(o)rewǝ- / *(o)rowǝ- 1332
Altaic: *ṓŕi
Kartvelian: Georg. r- 'to go, walk, ride'
Dravidian: *ēr_- (*-d_-)
Comments: Cf. also: PAA *ī́re 'to enter', PCK *'re- id.
References: ОСНЯ 1, 254, МССНЯ 355; ND 83 *ʔuŕE 'top', 816 *.erU ~ *.orE 'go upwards, rise'; 1954 *rUʔV 'go away, run' (?+ Eg, Cush, Chad).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *or(w)- <PIH *o->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to lift, to rise, to move
Hittite: ar-/er- (II) 'ankommen, gelangen nach, kommen zu', (med.) 'stehen, sich stellen'; pal. ar `gelangen (?)', luw. ari(ya)- 'ankommen' (?) (Tischler 48-49); arai- (II) 'sich erheben' (Tischler 52); arnu- (I) 'in Bewegung setzen, fort- oder herbringen' (Tischler 64); aru- 'hoch' (Tischler 70-71)
Tokharian: A ar-, B er- (PT *er-) 'evoke, bring forth, produce' (Adams 92-3)
Old Indian: r̥ṇóti, r̥ṇváti, r̥cchati `to go, move, rise, tend upwards; go towards, reach, obtain'; sam-ará- m. n. `meeting, encounter, conflict'; írya- `active, powerful, energetical'; árvan, árvant- `running, hasting'
Avestan: ar- `(sich) in Bewegung setzen, hingelagen'; hamara- m. `Gegnert, Widersacher'; aurva-, aurvant- `schnell, tapfer'
Other Iranian: OPers rasatiy `kommt, gelangt', NPers rasad `id.'
Armenian: y-arnem `erhebe mich, stehe auf'
Old Greek: órnümai̯, aor. ōrómǟn, -eto, ō̂rto, órmeno-, pf. órōra `sich regen, sich erheben, lossturzen, eilen'; órnǖmi/ -nǘō, aor. ō̂rsa, ṓrore, fut. órsō, aor. pass. ō̂rthēn `erregen, antreiben, ermuntern'; orto-, orsi-/orti- в сложениях; thé-orto- `von der Göttern ausgegangen', né-orto- `neuerstanden'
Germanic: *arw-a- adj.; *ir-n-a- vb.
Latin: orior (-eris/-īris), oritūrus, ortus, orīrī `aufstehen, sich erheben; aufsteigen; entstehen, geboren sein, abstammen'; ortu, -ūs m. `Aufgang (eines Gestirns), Geburt, Abstammung'
Other Italic: Umbr ortom `ortum', urtas `ortae, surgentēs', urtes `surgentibus'
Russ. meaning: поднимать(ся), двигать(ся)
References: WP I 136 f, Buck 23.
Comments: Cf. other similar roots in *er-, *ar-.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *arwa-; *irnan- vb.
Meaning: quick, active
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: ɔr-r `freigebig, milde'
Old English: earu `quick, active, ready'; arod `quick, swift, ready, prepared'; irnan (arn, urnon; urnen) `id.', { ärnan }
Old Saxon: aru `hurtig, bereit, flink'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-osax,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ṓŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rise, up
Russian meaning: подниматься, верх
Turkic: *ǖŕ (/*ȫŕ)
Mongolian: *ergü- (*örgü-)
Korean: *òrắ-
Japanese: *ura(i)
Comments: SKE 178, EAS 107, ОСНЯ 1, 254. Despite Щербак 1997, 131 the Mong. stem cannot be regarded as a Turkic loanword. The root is sometimes difficult to distinguish from *p`ṓre q. v. See also notes to *p`i̯ŏlge.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ǖŕ (/*ȫŕ)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: on top, high above
Russian meaning: наверху, высоко над
Old Turkic: üze / öze (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üze (MK)
Turkish: üzer 'upper part'
Middle Turkic: üze (Pav. C., Бор. Бад.)
Sary-Yughur: üze, üzi
Azerbaidzhan: üzäri
Oyrat: üzeri
Chuvash: vir (<*ö̆ŕ)
Yakut: ǖhe, üöhe
Dolgan: ühe, üöhe
Comments: A common Turkic derivative is *üŕ-t (with secondary vowel shortening): OT üst, Turkm. üst, Tat. ös, Khal. ist etc. 'upper part'. See EDT 280-281, VEWT 523, 524, ЭСТЯ 1, 622-623, 638-639, Stachowski 249, 251, 255.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ergü- (*örgü-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to lift, raise
Russian meaning: поднимать
Written Mongolian: ergü-, örgü- (L 325)
Middle Mongolian: ergu- (HY 33, SH), wärgo- (IM), urg(i)- (MA)
Khalkha: örgö-
Buriat: ürge-
Kalmuck: örgǝ-
Ordos: ürgü-
Dongxian: uGu-
Dagur: erewē- (MD 146), ergue-
Shary-Yoghur: orgomǯilī
Monguor: urgu- (SM 475)
Comments: MGCD 548. Cf. also WMong. örni- 'to grow, increase'. Derived is WMong. örgüge, ergüge, Khalkha örgȫ 'tent, palace' > Khak. örge etc., see KW 299. Note that the root should be kept distinct from *öre- 'to arrange, put in a row' (v. sub *ŏŕe).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *òrắ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to rise
Russian meaning: подниматься
Modern Korean: orɨ-
Middle Korean: òrắ-, òr-
Comments: Nam 380, KED 1199.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ura(i)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: end of a branch, top of a tree
Russian meaning: конец ветки, верхушка дерева
Old Japanese: ura, ure
Tokyo: ura
Comments: JLTT 563. PJ accent is unclear.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-tok,japet-comments,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ēr_- (*-d_-)
Meaning : to rise; steep
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ēr_-
Proto-Telugu : *rē-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ēr_- (*-d_-)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ēr_-
Meaning : to rise
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ēr_u (ēr_i-)
Tamil meaning : to rise, ascend (as the heavenly bodies), mount, climb, abound in number, weight, or measure, increase in price, quality, spread, be diffused (as poison), grow, be laden (as cargo)
Tamil derivates : ēr_a so as to exceed, more than, above; ēr_r_u (ēr_r_i-) to lift up, raise, increase (as price), load (as a cart or ship), eulogize, found, establish; ēr_r_am mounting, ascending, raising up, rising (as the tide), eulogy, increase, excess, preeminence, well-sweep, picottah; ēl (ēr_p-, ēr_r_-; ēlv-, ēn_r_-) to be excessive, abound; awake from sleep; bear, lift up, carry
Malayalam : ēr_uka
Malayalam meaning : to rise, increase, be much, arise, ascend
Malayalam derivates : ēr_a much, more, beyond; ēr_r_uka to raise, embark, multiply; ēr_r_am rising, ascent, increase, climbing, pulling up, what is too much, embarkation; ēr_r_u mounting palm trees, flow of tide; ēlkka (ēr_r_-) to multiply; ēttam machine to draw water
Kannada : ēr_u
Kannada meaning : to rise, increase, ascend, mount, climb; n. rising, etc., rising ground
Kannada derivates : ēr_i an ascender; ēr_ike, ēr_uta, ēr_uvike rising, increasing, etc.; ēr_isu to raise, place upon, etc.; ēta ascent, rise; picottah; rēgu to rise (as dust), be aroused, excited, angry
Kodagu : ē̈r- (ē̈ri-)
Kodagu meaning : (liquor) rises to head, (poison) diffuses and kills; be more than enough, extra; ē̈ra more than enough
Tulu : ēruni
Tulu meaning : to ascend, climb, rise, be increased
Tulu derivates : ērāvuni to raise, increase, load, embark; rēgiyuni to be excited; erkụ rising or accumulation of water; ertè flood-tide; yāta engine for drawing water
Proto-Nilgiri : *ēr_- (caus. *ēt_-)
Number in DED : 0916
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ēr_-
Meaning : to rise
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ēr- (ēry-) "(advice) is listened to"
Toda : ȫr_- (ȫr_y-) "to rise high, (position, disease) is diffused, load (bullock, cart)"
Additional forms : Also Kota ēr, ērēr, ērr up; ēr big; ēt_- (ēc-) to place (burden) on (person or animal); ēt_l act of raising (e. g. a fine); ēt_ aṇ edge of bank of stream or tank (or with 5159); Toda ȫr_c- (ȫr_č-) to make high; et_- (et_y-) to raise, in: pōw ful et_- to thatch the tī dairy (i. e. to raise the thatching grass to/of the dairy), ās_ fōn et_- to burn the model house at a woman's funeral (lit. to raise the house to the sky)
Notes : In Toda et_- the vowel is short most probably because it functions only in compounds.
Number in DED : 916
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *rē-
Meaning : to be excited, rage, rise (B., as dust), swell
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : rē̃gu
Dialectal forms (1) : rēgu
Dialectal forms (2) : rēvu
Additional forms : Also rēyu to increase, rise, swell, rage; [1] rē̃cu, [2] r_ē̃cu, [3] rē̃pu to excite, rouse, provoke; [1] rēpu, [2] r_ēpu morning, tomorrow, (B) dawn; rēpakaḍa morning, dawn; reccu to rise, swell, increase; lēcu to rise, get up, sprout, spring up, rise from sleep, be roused from sleep; lēpu to rouse, awake, rise, excite, stir up
Number in DED : 916
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-tel_3,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ēr_- (*-d_-)
Meaning : steep
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : ēr_asi
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : ēr_asi
Meaning: steep, steeply rising
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 916
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HVrV
Meaning: to go, come
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=VʔwV(r)
Sino-Tibetan: *rǝ̄
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=VʔwV(r)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to go, to come
Proto-Nakh: *=aʔ- (~ -ā-)
Proto-Tsezian: *-VH-
Proto-Lak: ha-
Proto-Dargwa: *=ah-/*=ih(r)-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔVʔʷV(r)-
Proto-West Caucasian: *jǝ
Notes: One of several NC verb stems with root laryngeal. Vocalism in such roots is usually hard to reconstruct.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=aʔ- (~ -ā-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to come
Chechen: =ā-n
Ingush: =a-n
Batsbi: =aʔ-ar
Comments: PN term. *=aʔ- (or *=āʔ-; the vowel length is unclear because of loss of the laryngeal in Chech.), dur. *=ēʔ- (Chech. -eʔ-, Bacb. -eʔ-).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-VH-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to go, come
Bezhta: g-oh- (imper.)
Gunzib: g-uʔ-
Comments: Vowel quality unclear (because of assimilations due to class infixes: cf. Bezht. g-oh-/ g-ih-/ g-uh-, Gunz. guʔ-/gij-); also irregular are correspondences between laryngeals. Cf. also Bezht. Khosh. g-uw- (with alternations: g-ō- / g-ī- / g-ū-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: ha-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to go (term.)
Lak form: ha-n
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ah-/*=ih(r)-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to go
Akusha: =ir-es
Chiragh: =a- (ej)
Comments: Cf. also Ur. =ih-/=ir- 'go'.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔVʔʷV(r)-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to go 2 to come
Rutul: ruʔu-
Tsakhur: =ōr-a (pres.)
Comment: In Tsakh. the stem is used in imperative (in pres. it has the shape -(h)aI, cf. aIl-ha 'to go', qI-ā 'to go away', aor. q-a=ɨ; s-āI 'to gather', aor. s-a=ɨ). In Rut. it is used both in the paradigm of the verb 'to go' and as a constative in the paradigm of the verbs 'to be, to become' ("is becoming...").
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *jǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: come
Abkhaz: a-né-jra
Abaza: ʕa-jra
Comments: PAT *jǝ, used only with locative preverbs (*na-jǝ- 'come there', *ʕa-jǝ- 'come here'). There are no known parallels in other WC languages, but there exist possible EC correspondences.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *rǝ̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: come
Chinese: *rǝ̄ come.
Lushai: KC *ra come.
Comments: Thebor ra, Bunan ra. Sh. 138. Cf. also: Tujia ɣɨ.3 'go', Cuona-Menba ra.35 'come', BG *ra(i) 'go, walk', Naga *rV 'come', Magar rǝ-, Muya ri.35 id.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: lái lài [låi]
Preclassic Old Chinese: rǝ̄ rǝ̄s
Classic Old Chinese: rǝ̄ rǝ̄h
Western Han Chinese: rǝ̄ rǝ̄h
Eastern Han Chinese: rǝ̄ rǝ̄h
Early Postclassic Chinese: lǝ̄ lǝ̄̀
Middle Postclassic Chinese: lǝ̄ lǝ̄̀
Late Postclassic Chinese: lǝ̄j lǝ̄̀j
Middle Chinese: lʌj lʌ̀j
Fanqie: 勒孩 [a] 勒礙 [b]
Rhyme class: 灰 [a] 隊 [b]
English meaning : to come; wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) приходить, прибывать; появляться; происходить (из, от); 2) призывать, приглашать; 3) направлять, присылать; приносить, подавать; 4) делать; пробовать; уметь; получается; давай!; 5) будущий; наступающий, грядущий; 6) со времени; за (столько-то времени); 7) слишком (при числительных); 8) вспомогательный глагол, указывающий а) на следующий за ним основной глагол конструкции с указанием приближения действия к говорящему лицу; б) вводит обстоятельство цели; 9) глагольный суффикс, указывающий на направление действия к говорящему лицу; 10) древн. конечная частица предложения, указывающая на законченность действия; 11) древн. пшеница; 12) Лай (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 周所受瑞麥來麰. 一來二縫. 象芒束之形. 天所來也. 故為行來之來. 時曰. 詒我來麰. 凡來之屬皆從來.
Comments: There must have existed an OC variant *rǝ̄-s, reflected in some Shijing rhymes, as well as in Viet. lại (a colloquial form; standard Sino-Viet. is lai). For OC *r- cf. Min forms: Xiamen, Chaozhou lai2, Fuzhou li2, Jianou lɛ2, lai9, Jianyang le2, Shaowu li2. With the meaning 'Triticum' the graph was probably read *mrǝ̄k, being just a variant of 麥 q.v.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 9
Four-angle index: 5299
Karlgren code: 0944 a-e
Vietnamese reading: lại
Jianchuan Bai: ɣɨ1
Dali Bai: jɨ1
Bijiang Bai: ja6
Shijing occurrences: 30.2_, 33.3_, 35.6, 58.1, 58.2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-fanqie,bigchina-rhyme,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 482
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 蟹開一平咍來
ZIHUI: 0171 1064
Beijing: lai 12
Jinan: lɛ 12
Xi'an: lɛ 12
Taiyuan: lai 1
Hankou: nai 12
Chengdu: nai 12
Yangzhou: lɛ 12
Suzhou: le_ 12
Wenzhou: le_ 12
Changsha: nai 12
Shuangfeng: nie 12
Nanchang: lai 31
Meixian: lɔi 12
Guangzhou: lɔi 12
Xiamen: lai 12
Chaozhou: lai 12
Fuzhou: lai 12 (lit.); li 12
Shanghai: le_ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: lai 12
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