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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kadgu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sorrow
Russian meaning: печаль
Old Turkic: qadɣu (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaδɣu (MK, KB)
Turkish: kajɣɨ
Tatar: qajɣɨ
Middle Turkic: qajɣɨ (Qutb., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɛjɣɨ (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: Gajɣɨ
Turkmen: GajGɨ
Chuvash: xojɣa
Kirghiz: qajɣɨ
Kazakh: qajɣɨ
Noghai: qajɣɨ
Bashkir: qajɣɨ
Karaim: qajɣɨ
Karakalpak: qajɣɨ
Kumyk: qajɣɨ
Comments: VEWT 217, ЭСТЯ 5, 201-203, Федотов 2, 352-353.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gằju
Meaning: sorrow
Russian meaning: печаль
Turkic: *Kadgu
Mongolian: *gaj
Tungus-Manchu: *gaja-
Korean: *kǝi'ǝm
Japanese: *kùjà-
Comments: Мудрак Дисс. 102. Cf. also Kalm. gejǖn, WMong. gejeɣün 'grievous, gloomy' (perhaps < *gaju-gi- with secondary fronting). Note the peculiar *-d- in PT, reflected as -j- (not -r-) in Chuv.: perhaps we should rather reconstruct *Kaj(i)-dgu for early PT, with subsequent development either > *Kajgu or > *Kadgu.
altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gaj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sorrow, grief, woe
Russian meaning: печаль, горе, несчастье
Written Mongolian: ɣai (L 344)
Khalkha: gaj
Buriat: gaj
Kalmuck:
Ordos:
Dagur: gai (Тод. Даг. 130)
Comments: KW 149. Mong. > Man. Gaj `impediment, obstacle' (see Rozycki 85).
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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gaja-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to have insomnia 2 to be possessed, demoniac
Russian meaning: 1 испытывать бессонницу 2 быть одержимым
Literary Manchu: Gajla- 2
Ulcha: Gajaǯụ- 1
Orok: Gajaddị- 1
Nanai: Gajaǯị- 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 136.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kǝi'ǝm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: envy, covetousness
Russian meaning: зависть
Modern Korean: kejǝm
Middle Korean: kǝi'ǝm
Comments: Liu 52, KED 109.
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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùjà-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be sorry
Russian meaning: сожалеть, прискорбный, достойный сожаления
Old Japanese: kuja-
Middle Japanese: kùjà-
Tokyo: kuyashí-
Kyoto: kúyáshì-
Kagoshima: kuyashí-
Comments: JLTT 834. Also PJ *kùjà-m- 'to feel sorry, regret'.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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