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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tǝ̀nká-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to commit, fulfil, come to an agreement
Russian meaning: совершать, достигать, приходить к соглашению
Old Japanese: t(w)oga-
Middle Japanese: tògá-
Tokyo: togé-
Kyoto: togé-
Comments: JLTT 769. Accent in Kagoshima is aberrant.

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ŏ̀k`ó
Meaning: to agree, confirm
Russian meaning: соглашаться, подтверждать
Turkic: *čok-
Mongolian: *čoku-
Tungus-Manchu: *čixa
Japanese: *tǝ̀nká-
Comments: A good common Altaic verbal root.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledge
Russian meaning: 1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство
Tatar: čuqɨn- 3
Uzbek: čọqin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4
Uighur: čoqun- 3
Sary-Yughur: čoq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
Turkmen: čoqun- 3
Khakassian: čoɣɨn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)
Shor: šoqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation šoq!' R 4, 1024)
Oyrat: čoɣɨr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), čoqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation čoq!' (R 3, 2009)
Chuvash: śъk 5
Kirghiz: čoqun- 3, 4
Noghai: šoqɨn- 3
Bashkir: suqɨn- 3
Karakalpak: šoqɨn- 3
Kumyk: čoqun- 3
Comments: VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Räsänen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. čoqur 'pit' and Taranchi čoqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from čok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to čökür- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. čoq!, Shor šoq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. čok!, Kaz. šoq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *čok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. csök 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čoku-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to agree, confirm
Russian meaning: соглашаться, подтверждать
Written Mongolian: čoqu- (L 199)
Khalkha: coxo-
Buriat: soxom (adverb)
Ordos: ǯuxum 'vrai'

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čixa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 will, wish, agreement 2 to agree, to wish
Russian meaning: 1 воля, желание, согласие 2 соглашаться, желать
Spoken Manchu: čihalǝ- 'to be fond of, like to' (1890)
Literary Manchu: čiχa 1, čiχala- 2
Ulcha: tịχala- 2
Nanai: čịχala- 2
Oroch: čixala- 2
Udighe: čāla-, čahala- 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 390-391.

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