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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tákú-páp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hoard, assemble
Russian meaning: запасать, накапливать
Old Japanese: takupap(a)-
Middle Japanese: tákúfáf(a)-
Tokyo: takuwaé-, tàkuwae-
Kyoto: tàkùwàè-
Kagoshima: takuwaé-
Comments: JLTT 762. Accent is somewhat uncertain, though most sources (RJ, Tokyo tàkuwae-, Kagoshima) point to *tákúpáp-. It is also worth noting Middle Jpn. and modern takusán 'much, many': the word is shaped and perceived as a kango (澤山 'swamps and mountains'), but is apparently not attested in Chinese sources and may represent a folk etymology. Its accent, however, differs from that of *tákú-páp- (Kyoto tákùsàn and Kagoshima takusán, together with the Tokyo form, point to *tàkù-sà[mà]).
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`áko
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: many; be full, enough
Russian meaning: много; быть полным, достаточным
Turkic: *čok
Tungus-Manchu: *čak
Korean: *čhắ-
Japanese: *tákú-páp-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 283. The comparison of PT *čok with Sino-Kor. čjok (SKE 39, AKE 7, EAS 63) should be, of course, rejected; on the other hand, the comparison of Kor. čhă- (a regular reduction < *čăhă-) with Mong. čad-, čas- in SKE 46 cannot explain the aspiration of č- in Korean. See further МССНЯ, 331.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čok
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowd
Russian meaning: 1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(ся), размножать(ся) 4 толпа, множество
Karakhanid: čoq 1 (ДТС - KB), čōq 2 (MK - Oghuz), čoɣ-al- 3
Turkish: čok (-ɣu) 1, čoɣal- 3
Middle Turkic: čoq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), čoq- 3 (Abush.)
Azerbaidzhan: čox 1, čoxal- 3
Turkmen: čoq (-qu) 4
Khakassian: sox 2
Oyrat: čoq- 3
Tuva: šoɣ 2
Kirghiz: čoq 1
Kazakh: šoɣɨr 4
Noghai: šoq 'дружно'
Gagauz: čoju 4, čoq-la-n- 3
Karaim: čoq 1, čoɣɨ 4 (K)
Karakalpak: šoq 2, 4
Comments: VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as čoq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of čoq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with čoɣ-la- 'to bind, pack' (ДТС) or čoq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čak-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 full 2 strongly
Russian meaning: 1 полный 2 сильно, крепко
Literary Manchu: čaq seme 2
Orok: čak bi 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 379.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-ork,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čhắ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be full, fill
Russian meaning: быть полным, наполнять
Modern Korean: čha-
Middle Korean: čhắ-
Comments: Nam 447, KED 1561.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *č`oḳV ( ~ -q̇-)
Meaning: big, thick
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *č`ako
Uralic: *čukkV (*čokkV)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: Niv. c`oʁ 'группа, стая'.
References: ND 385 *č[o]ḲV 'much, heavy'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 119
Proto: *čukkV (*čokkV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: thick
German meaning: dicht, dick
Mari (Cheremis): čakata (KB), čokata (B), ćoka (C) 'dicht, fest, kompakt'
Komi (Zyrian): če̮k 'dicht' (Lu. P) ( > Khanty DN šǝk, O siχ, ?Kr. šoχ 'Dickicht; dichtbelaubt, dicht', S Lu. če̮ki̮d 'dicht, dicht wachsend')
Mansi (Vogul): šaw (TJ), šɔ̄̈w (KU), šāw (P), sāw (So.) 'viel'
Hungarian: sok 'viel, viele'
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Komi čэk > Khan. UD šǝk,(?) Kr. šoχ 'Dickicht, Gehölz; dichtbelaubt', O siχ 'dicht (von Reusen, Netz, Gehölz)'
References: FUV; Budenz MUSz 345; Donn.VglWb. 591; Bár.SzófSz; MSzFrgE; TESz; DEWO 253; Paas.Beitr. 302
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-kom,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-reshet,uralet-lit,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVKV
Meaning : big, thick
Eurasiatic : *č`oḳV ( ~ -q̇-)
Afroasiatic : ? Sem *čḳl 'weigh, heavy' (?+ Berb. *ẓ(H)k- 'heavy' in ND 2040); Cush. *č̣Vḳ- 'full'
Sino-Caucasian : *č̣HǝqwV́
Austric : *CVk
Reference : ND 385 (Nostr-Sem.); Peiros 1989, 127. Cf. Ain. sik 'full'.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *č̣HǝqwV́
Meaning: thick, big, abundant
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *č̣HǝqwV
Sino-Tibetan: *ćŏk ( ~ ʒ́-)
Yenisseian: *su(ʔ)K- (?)
Burushaski: *śóq-
Basque: *aśko
Comments and references : HGC 40, NSC 53 *č̣VqwV, BCD 18.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *č̣HǝqwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: big
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *-ič̣uχa (~-q-)
Proto-Lak: č̣aI-u-
Proto-Dargwa: *čaqʷ-
Proto-Lezghian: *č̣aχV (~-ä-)
Proto-West Caucasian: *čʷǝχʷa
Notes: In PD and PWC there occurred an assimilative deglottalisation *č̣- > *č-. Some doubts are raised by the Lak. form - regularly *č̣aIq- would be expected; maybe pharyngealised *qI was lost in clusters with following class markers (real Lak. forms are č̣aIwu- 1/3, č̣aIru- 2/4 < *č̣aIq-bu-, *č̣aIq-ru- ?).

    The PA form suggests that this root could have prefixed class markers in PEC; however, they are absent in all other languages (even in Av.) and may be in this case a PA innovation.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *-ič̣uχa (~-q-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 big 2 large, big (adv.) 3 high, tall
Avar: č̣aħá- 2
Chadakolob: č̣áħa-b 3
Andian language: -eč̣uχa 1
Karata: hič̣uχa-b (Anch) 1
Botlikh: -eč̣uχa 1
Godoberi: -eč̣uχa 1
Comments: Not quite clear is the initial h- in Kar.; otherwise the correspondences are quite regular.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: č̣aI-u-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: many
Lak form: č̣aI-u-s:a
Comments: Cf. Khosr. č̣aI-u-s:a id.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *čaqʷ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: high
Chiragh: čaqʷ-ze
Comments: Cf. also Kait. čaIq-il (with unclear pharyngealization), Muir. čiq-il id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *č̣aχV (~-ä-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 big 2 large, massive
Lezghian: č̣eχi 1
Tabasaran: č̣atχu 2
Comment: Tab. -t- is a frequent adjectival infix. Lezg. č̣eχi was borrowed in Khin. as čχi.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *čʷǝχʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 big 2 strong
Adyghe: -šxʷa 1
Kabardian: -šxʷa 1
Ubykh: šχʷa 2
Comments: Seems to be less used in modern Kab. (in Ad. this is the main word for 'big'). PAK *čxʷa. The AK-Ub. comparison belongs to Dumézil (1932, 95). Klimov (1969, 290) has compared the AK root with Abkh. a-mcχʷ 'surplus'; this comparison is, however, justly rejected by Shagirov (2, 61-62) (both for phonetic and semantic reasons).

    The precise nature of the initial PWC affricate here is hard to determine, since both in PAK and Ub. the initial clusters of the type 'affricate+fricative' are substantially restricted (in Ub. all affricates change to fricatives in this position; in PAK palatalized/non-palatalized affricates are neutralised before fricatives). Position within a cluster also explains the change of uvular to velar in PAK (no combinations of front affricates + uvular fricatives are allowed).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ćŏk ( ~ ʒ́-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: enough, sufficient
Chinese: *ćok enough, sufficient.
Tibetan: ćhog be sufficient, sufficiency.
Comments: Simon 9; Coblin 144.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zú
Preclassic Old Chinese: ćok
Classic Old Chinese: cok
Western Han Chinese: cok
Eastern Han Chinese: cjok
Early Postclassic Chinese: cjok
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cjok
Late Postclassic Chinese: cjok
Middle Chinese: cjöuk
English meaning : leg, foot
Russian meaning[s]: 1) нога; ступня; лапа; 2) ножка; основание, подошва; 3) достаточно, довольно; быть достаточным, удовлетворять; заслуживать, стоить; годиться; мочь; 4) вполне, совершенно; в высшей степени; [jù] чрезмерный; чересчур
Comments: Also very frequently used for a homonymous *ćok 'be sufficient, enough'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 157
Four-angle index: 5836
Karlgren code: 1219 a-b
Go-on: soku
Kan-on: siyoku
Japanese reading: soku+;ashi+;tariru;tasu
Shijing occurrences: 17.2_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 458
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 通合三入燭精
ZIHUI: 6398 0833
Beijing: cu 12
Jinan: ćy 11
Xi'an: cou 11
Taiyuan: ćyǝʔ 41
Hankou: cou 12
Chengdu: ćyo 12
Yangzhou: cɔʔ 4
Suzhou: coʔ 41
Wenzhou: ćyo 41
Changsha: côu 4
Shuangfeng: cǝu 12
Nanchang: cuk 41
Meixian: ciuk 41
Guangzhou: čuk 41
Xiamen: ciɔk 41
Chaozhou: cok 41
Fuzhou: cöyʔ 41
Shanghai: coʔ 4
Zhongyuan yinyun: ciu 42
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *suK-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thick
Ket: śuokŋ (Кастр.) (Werner 2, 212 śukŋ)
Yug: sukŋ5
Kottish: šukŋ
Comments: ССЕ 277. Pump. (Срсл.) sukdu "thick" is in reality Yug. Werner 2, 212 *suk / *sukŋ.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *śóq-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: wide, broad
Yasin: śóqum
Hunza: śóqum
Nagar: śóqum
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *aśko, *aśki
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 many 2 enough
Bizkaian: asko 1
Gipuzkoan: asko 1, aski 2
High Navarrese: aski 2
Low Navarrese: asko 1, aski 2
Lapurdian: aski 2
Zuberoan: asko 1, aski 2
Roncalese: aski 2
Comments: Trask (1997) suggests that these words are derived from the "curious verb ase 'to be satiated, be satisfied'": see *aśe.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *CVk
Meaning: heavy, full
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: cVk
Austroasiatic meaning: heavy, solid
Proto-Thai: ʔcuk very full (of food) CK
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: cVk
Meaning: heavy, solid
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: ʔcuk very full (of food) CK
Proto-Bahnaric: *ʒǝk
Khmer: ʒuk < OK ʒuk
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: *ʒǝ̆k
Meaning: heavy
Presyllable: KǝN-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-South Bahnaric: *ʒǝk, #/ kǝn-
Proto-West Bahnaric: *ʒɨk, gǝ(N)-
References: JS-897; TB16.154a
banet-meaning,banet-prpr,banet-prnum,banet-sob,banet-web,banet-refer,

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South Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-South Bahnaric: *ʒǝk, #/ kǝn-
Meaning: heavy
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Chrau form: kǝnʒǝʔ
Chrau meaning: heavy
Stieng form: ʒǝk
Stieng meaning: be heavy
References: SBS-767
sobet-meaning,sobet-prnum,sobet-chr,sobet-chrme,sobet-sti,sobet-stime,sobet-refer,

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West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-West- Bahnaric: *ʒɨk, gǝ(N)-
Meaning: heavy
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Jaru form: kǝʒɨk
Jaru meaning: heavy
Lavi: kanchɨk
Nhaheung form: gjɨk
Nhaheung meaning: heavy
Brao form: kǝjɨk
Brao meaning: heavy
References: JS-897
webet-meaning,webet-prnum,webet-jr,webet-jrme,webet-lve,webet-nha,webet-nhame,webet-brao,webet-brame,webet-refer,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: ʒuk
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: ʒuk
Old Khmer Meaning: thick, dense
References: P189
kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

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