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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *si̯udu ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a hoof deformation
Russian meaning: деформация копыта
Turkic: *sɨdɨr-gak
Mongolian: *södürge
Tungus-Manchu: *sudu
Japanese: *sia ( ~ *sai)
Comments: An interesting common Altaic body part name. The final vowel is difficult to reconstruct because of contraction in Jpn.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *sɨdɨr-gak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a cloven hoof 2 double shin bone
Russian meaning: 1 раздвоенное копыто 2 двойная голенная кость
Karakhanid: sɨδɨrɣaq (MK) 1
Uzbek: siɣraq 1
Khakassian: sɨzɨro 'fork'
Yakut: ɨtarča 'сковородник оленьей кости' (Пек.)
Comments: EDT 803. Cf. *sɨŋɨr-.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-uzb,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *södürge
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hoof disease
Russian meaning: болезнь копыт
Written Mongolian: södürge (L 730)
Khalkha: södrög
Kalmuck: südü-gülǯ- 'to limp slightly'
Comments: KW 339.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sudu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bulging part of the shin
Russian meaning: выпуклая часть голени
Literary Manchu: sudu
Comments: ТМС 2, 120. Attested only in Manchu, but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sia ( ~ *sai)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: shaggy hoof
Russian meaning: мохнатое копыто
Middle Japanese: se
Comments: JLTT 521.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *c`UdV
Meaning: hoof, hoof deformation
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *si̯udu ( ~ -a)
Uralic: *ćutte Knöchelbein
Eskimo-Aleut: *cǝtu(m)- (-qu-), *cǝtu-ʁ-
Comments: Cf. *SVtV.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 82
Proto: *ćutte
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: knuckle bone
German meaning: Knöchelbein
Saam (Lapp): čutta 'talus; Knöchelbein', tjuhttā (L) 'Knöchel, Gelenkhöcker; Sprungbein' ?
Hungarian: csont 'Knochen, Bein' ?
K. Reshetnikov's notes: A comparison of few forms reflecting Lapp. *c'uttā 'ankle etc.' (see LAPET 41) with Hun. csont 'bone', not persuasive phonetically (Lapp. *-tt- ~ Hun. -nt) and rejected by me (Hun. csont probably to *c'olme 'knot' - see URAET 68, UGRET 60).
References: Bár.SzófSz; EtSz; TESz
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-ugr,uralet-reshet,uralet-lit,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *cǝtu(m)- (-qu-), *cǝtu-ʁ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: nail, claw, hoof; to extend out legs
Russian meaning: ноготь, коготь, копыто; вытянуть ноги
Proto-Yupik: *cǝtu-ɣ (-m-qu-), *cǝtu-ʁ-
Proto-Inupik: *cittu-ʁ-
Comments: The Russian equivalent for the verbal meanings of this root is 'отбросить копыта' = 'to throw away the hooves', usually with the connotation 'to die = to lay with outstretched legs'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 86
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *cǝtu-ɣ (-m-qu-), *cǝtu-ʁ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: nail, claw 1, hoof 2, to extend out legs 3
Russian Meaning: ноготь, коготь 1, копыто 2, вытянуть ноги 3
Sirenik: sītǝ́x 1, //situχt(ǝ)- 'to straighten up, to stretch out (of person)' [Men.]
Chaplino: stuk (ɣǝt) 1, 2, stuχtaquq 'to reach out', 3
Naukan: sítuk 1, sítǝmqúq 2, //situʁ- 'to sit with legs extended' [Av.]
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: (ǝ)stuk 1, stumquq 2, stuʁ- 3
Chugach (Birket-Smith): stullīt pl. 'claw trolls'
Central Alaskan Yupik: cǝtuk 1, citumquq 'claw, hoof, talon, deformed nail', cǝtuʁ- 3 (postural root)
Chevak (Peripheral): cituk 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 86, 87
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-chev,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *cittu-ʁ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to extend legs
Russian meaning: вытянуть ноги
Seward Peninsula Inupik: sittuq- 'to sit with legs extended'
North Alaskan Inupik: sitcuq- 'to extend legs while sitting'
Western Canadian Inupik: sittuq- 'to extend legs after it's been bent'
Eastern Canadian Inupik: sittuq- 'to extend one or both legs'
Greenlandic Inupik: sitsuʁ- 'to to sit while legs obliquely downward'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 87
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-nai,inupet-wci,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVTV
Meaning : hoof
Eurasiatic : *sUdV
Sino-Caucasian : *šHwătā́ ?
African (misc.) : ? Bantu *-cété, *-cétí 'nail'.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-afr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *šHwătā́
Meaning: part of leg, legging
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *šHwătā ( ~ -ǝ̄)
Burushaski: *śatá
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-buru,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *šHwătā ( ~ -ǝ̄)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sock, stocking
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *š:ʷata ( ~ o)
Proto-Tsezian: *šeta ( ~ š:-)
Proto-Lak: š:aItal
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *š:ʷata ( ~ o)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sock, stocking
Avar: š:ʷatá
Karata: š:eta
Comments: Av. paradigm B (gen. š:ʷatá-dul). Cf. also Kar. Tok. š:ata id.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *šeta ( ~ š:-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a knitted boot
Ginukh: šita
Comments: Attested only in Ginukh, but having probable external parallels.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: š:aItal
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: woollen footwear (socks)
Lak form: š:aItal
Comments: The Lak. form is an original plural.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *śatá
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: middle part of the sole; soft spot in the middle of the hoof not covered by the horseshoe
Hunza: śatá
Nagar: śatá
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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