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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *zèjńa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: new
Russian meaning: новый
Turkic: *jaŋɨ / *jeŋi
Mongolian: *sine
Tungus-Manchu: *seńe-
Korean: *sái
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 58-59, 283, Лексика 85. Cf. also WMong. saja, Kalm. 'newly' (KW 316), EAS 72, probably a variant of the same root with different vocalization. Turkic reflects an attributive form (*jeŋi < *jeń-ki); medial *-j- has to be reconstructed because of the loss of *-ń- in Kor.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jaŋɨ / *jeŋi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: new
Russian meaning: новый
Old Turkic: jaŋɨ (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaŋɨ (MK)
Turkish: jeni
Tatar: jaŋa
Middle Turkic: jaŋɨ (MA, Abush.)
Uzbek: jangụ
Uighur: jeŋi
Sary-Yughur: jaŋɨ
Azerbaidzhan: jeni
Turkmen: jaŋɨ 'just, recently'
Khakassian:
Shor: na (Верб.)
Oyrat: d́aŋɨ
Halaj: jäŋgi
Chuvash: śǝnǝ
Yakut: saŋa
Dolgan: haŋa; hiŋil 'young'
Tuva: čā
Tofalar: ńā̃
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɨ
Kazakh: žaŋa
Noghai: jaŋɨ
Bashkir: jaŋɨ
Balkar: žanɣɨ
Gagauz: jeni
Karaim: jɨŋgɨ
Karakalpak: žaŋa
Salar: jaŋɨ
Kumyk: jaŋɨ
Comments: VEWT 185 (Räsänen is deriving this word from *jān 'side' which is quite improbable), EDT 943-4, ЭСТЯ 4, 124-125, Лексика 85, Stachowski 96, 104. Turk. > MMo, WMong. ǯaŋgi, Kalm. zäŋǵǝ 'news' (KW 470; doubts about this borrowing in TMN 1, 281, based on the early attestation of the meaning "discussion" in Mong., are hardly founded).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *sine
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: new
Russian meaning: новый
Written Mongolian: sine (L 711)
Middle Mongolian: šini (HY 6, SH), sīni (IM), šinä̆, šini (MA)
Khalkha: šine
Buriat: šene
Kalmuck: šinǝ
Ordos: šine
Dongxian: šǝni, šɨni
Baoan: šine
Dagur: šinken (Тод. Даг. 184, MD 217)
Shary-Yoghur: šǝnǝ
Monguor: šǝni (SM 375), śinǝ
Comments: KW 358, MGCD 717. Cf. also WMong. sene-r, Kalm. senr 'new, fresh' (KW 324).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *seńe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: raw, unripe
Russian meaning: сырой, недоспелый
Literary Manchu: seni-xun, seńe-xun
Comments: ТМС 2, 141. Attested only in Manchu, but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sái
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: new
Russian meaning: новый
Modern Korean:
Middle Korean: sái
Comments: Nam 295, KED 919.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *žVjŋV
Meaning: new, good
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *zèjńa
Uralic: *šeŋä
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1016
Proto: *šeŋä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: good, healthy
German meaning: gut, gesund; ? gerade
Finnish: hyvä 'gut' ( > Saam. N hivve 'good fellow'), hyvin 'gut, wohl; sehr, ganz, recht'
Estonian: hea, hüva (Urfinn. *šüvä > Saam. K T šuvva 'gut; vortrefflich' [?])
Saam (Lapp): sâvve- -v- (N) 'heal (of wound, sore)', savvō-, savvu- (L) 'heilen, vernarben' ?
Mordovian: čiv (E) 'gut, tüchtig, brav', čiva, -ań (M) 'gastfreundlich'
Mari (Cheremis): šu (KB) 'gesund, frisch', (MRS) 'здоровье' ?
Udmurt (Votyak): šońer (S K G) 'gerade, recht, wahr' ?
Komi (Zyrian): šań (S V) 'gut, tüchtig; schön' ?
Hungarian: igen (dial. égen, ügön) 'ja; sehr' ?
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-ugr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVNV
Meaning : new
Eurasiatic : *žVjŋV
Sino-Caucasian : *c̣ä̆ŋʔV́
Amerind (misc.) : ? *ti (rather *cV(n)) 'new' (R 504) [+ K], *c̣u(m) 'new; good' (R 505) [+ A]
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *zV[nV] "new".
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-afr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *c̣ä̆ŋʔV́
Meaning: new
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *c̣ä̆nʔV
Sino-Tibetan: *sĭn / *sĭŋ
Yenisseian: *-saŋ ( ~ -ä-)
Comments and references : HGC 21, WFR 82, LDC 38.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣ä̆nʔV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Proto-Nakh: *c̣in-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣inhV-
Proto-Tsezian: *-ɨc̣Vn- A
Proto-Lak: c̣u-
Proto-Dargwa: *c̣i-
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣enjä- / *c̣enwä-
Proto-West Caucasian: *ć̣A
Notes: One of the most widely spread common NC roots. It is adjectival, but usually does not have class prefixes (the situation in some Tsez. languages must therefore be considered as a secondary innovation). In Khin. the root is preserved within the compound c̣ɨ-nas 'bride' (see *nŭsA).

    Cf. Urart. š(V)-uɣǝ 'new' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 34-35).

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 275; Абдоков 1983, 142.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *c̣in-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Chechen: c̣ina
Ingush: c̣ena
Batsbi: c̣inĭ
Comments: For the pure stem cf. Chech. c̣in-dan "to renew". The full form in PN shows vacillation between *c̣in-a(n) (Ing. c̣ena) and *c̣in-e(n) (Bacb. c̣inĭ); Chech. c̣ina may go back to either.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣inhV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Avar: c̣íja-b
Chadakolob: č̣ija-b
Andian language: c̣iw
Akhvakh: č̣ĩ-da
Chamalal: c̣ĩw
Tindi: c̣ĩhu-b
Karata: c̣ijo-m
Botlikh: c̣ĩu
Bagvalal: c̣inu-b
Godoberi: c̣ĩju
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Arch., Anch. c̣ino-b, Tok. c̣inu-b.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-ɨc̣Vn- A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Tsezi: ec̣no
Ginukh: ec̣endiju
Khvarshi: ec̣nu
Inkhokvari: ɨc̣nu
Bezhta: ic̣ijo
Gunzib: ɨ̃c̣c̣u
Comments: PTsKh *ʔɨc̣(ɨ)n-, PGB *-ɨ̃c̣- (*-ɨc̣n-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c̣u-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Lak form: c̣u-s:a
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *c̣i-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Chiragh: c̣ize
Comments: Cf. also Kharb. c̣i-s:e 'new'.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣enjä- / *c̣enwä-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Lezghian: c̣iji
Tabasaran: c̣iji
Agul: c̣ajif
Rutul: c̣indɨ
Tsakhur: c̣edɨn
Kryz: c̣ijä
Archi: mac̣at:ut
Udi: ini
Comment: -j- and -w- are probably class suffixes (-w- postulated on basis of the Arch. form: *c̣enwä- > *c̣emä- > mac̣a-). The Udi form goes back to *c̣enjä- quite regularly, thus the assonance with Az. jeni is coincidental. See Бокарев 1961, 70; Гигинейшвили 1977, 100; Талибов 1980, 296.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ć̣A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 new 2 young 3 small, little
Abkhaz: a-č̣ǝ́-c 1
Abaza: č̣ǝ-c 1
Adyghe: c̣ǝ-ḳʷǝ 3
Kabardian: c̣ǝ-ḳʷ 3
Ubykh: ć̣a 1,2
Comments: PAT *ć̣ǝ-ćǝ 'new' - cf. Abkh. Bz. a-ć̣ǝ́ć. Historically this is probably a reduplication (with dissimilative loss of glottalisation in the second part). In the Abzh. dialect and in Abaz. the word was transformed to č̣ǝc under influence of another root, *č̣a q.v. The pure root *ć̣ǝ is preserved in Abkh. a-j-c̣-rá (Bz. a-j-ć̣-rá) 'to be younger, smaller', a-j-c̣-bá (Bz. a-j-ć̣-bá, Abaz. ajc̣ba) 'junior'.

    The AK languages preserve this root only within the compound *c̣ǝ-ḳʷǝ́ 'small, young, youngster' (c̣ǝ- regularly < *ć̣ǝ-; the precise meaning of the second component is not quite clear yet).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *sĭn / *sĭŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: new
Chinese: *sin new, renew.
Tibetan: gśin good, fine (cf. also gsiŋ-ma 'a place overgrown with young grass')
Burmese: sać new, LB *[ś]ikx.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: xīn
Preclassic Old Chinese: sin
Classic Old Chinese: sin
Western Han Chinese: sjǝn
Eastern Han Chinese: sjǝn
Early Postclassic Chinese: sjin
Middle Postclassic Chinese: sjin
Late Postclassic Chinese: sjin
Middle Chinese: sjin
English meaning : be new
Russian meaning[s]: 1) обновлять; новый, свежий; только что; заново; современный; новорожденный; 2) новобрачный
Comments: In Viet. cf. also a more archaic loan: tin, tín 'news'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 69
Four-angle index: 2004
Karlgren code: 0382 k-m
Vietnamese reading: tân
Jianchuan Bai: śĩ4
Dali Bai: śi5
Bijiang Bai: sẽ4
Shijing occurrences: 35.2, 35.3, 35.6, 43.1, 43.2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1632
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 臻開三平真心
ZIHUI: 2450 2136
Beijing: śin 11
Jinan: śiẽ 11
Xi'an: śiẽ 11
Taiyuan: śiŋ 1
Hankou: śin 11
Chengdu: śin 11
Yangzhou: śĩ 11
Suzhou: sin 11
Wenzhou: saŋ 11
Changsha: sin 11
Shuangfeng: śin 11
Nanchang: śin 11
Meixian: sin 11
Guangzhou: šan 11
Xiamen: sin 11
Chaozhou: siŋ 11
Fuzhou: siŋ 11
Shanghai: siŋ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: siǝn 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *-saŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to begin
Ket: bɛ́-śaŋ 'es beginnt', praet. bínśaŋ
Yug: bɛ́-saŋ, praet. bínsaŋ
Comments: Werner 1, 117 (w.r.)
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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