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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *uŋe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hollow, pit
Russian meaning: яма, нора
Turkic: *üŋ-
Mongolian: *oŋgi-
Tungus-Manchu: *uŋ-
Korean: *òŋtáŋ- / *ùŋtǝ́ŋ-
Comments: KW 287, Rozycki 218. Despite Doerfer MT 111, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong. Mong. (and some Turkic reflexes) go back to a suffixed form *uŋe-kV(jV).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *üŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to dig, delve 2 hole, cave
Russian meaning: 1 копать, проковыривать 2 пещера, нора
Old Turkic: üŋür 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: üŋ- 1, üŋür 2 (MK)
Uzbek: uŋur 2
Uighur: üŋgür 2
Tuva: üŋɣür 2
Kirghiz: üŋü- 1, üŋkür- 2
Kazakh: ü̆ŋgi- 1, üŋgĭr 2
Noghai: üŋgi- 1
Bashkir: ü̆ŋü̆- 1
Karakalpak: üŋgi- 1, üŋgir 2
Comments: EDT 169, 188-189, ЭСТЯ 1, 634, VEWT 521. Turk. *üŋür > Mong. üŋgür (Щербак 1997, 162).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *oŋgi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hole, nest 2 trough, vessel; ship
Russian meaning: 1 дыра, нора, гнездо 2 корыто, сосуд; лодка, корабль
Written Mongolian: oŋgi, oŋɣarqai, oŋɣurqai (L 614) 1, oŋɣuča 2
Middle Mongolian: oŋqača (HY 19), unqača (MA) 2, ūnkɣača (Lig.VMI) 2, kuǯunin unqarqai 'neck cavity' (МА)
Khalkha: ongi, ongorxoi 1, ongoc 2
Buriat: ongi 1, ongoso 2
Kalmuck: oŋǵǝ 1, oŋɣǝcǝ 2
Ordos: oŋgi 1
Dongxian: onGočo 2
Shary-Yoghur: oŋGorχi 1, oŋGočo 2
Monguor: uŋkuʒ́oG (SM 473), ŋgučaG 2
Comments: KW 287, MGCD 529. Mong. oŋguča > Evk. oŋkočo etc. (Doerfer MT 123-124 suggests Mong. < TM, which is more dubious).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *uŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 pit, hole 2 lair, den
Russian meaning: 1 яма 2 логовище (в хлеве для свиньи)
Evenki: uŋulu 1
Negidal: oŋolo 1
Literary Manchu: oŋGola, uŋGala 1, un 2
Ulcha: oŋGolo 1
Nanai: oŋGolo 1
Oroch: oŋgo 1
Udighe: oŋgo 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 274, 280.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *òŋtáŋ- / *ùŋtǝ́ŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pool, bog
Russian meaning: лужа, яма, заполненная водой
Modern Korean: uŋdǝŋi, oŋdaŋi
Middle Korean: uŋtǝŋ, ùŋtǝ́ŋ'í
Comments: Liu 597, 598, KED 1251.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *wonkV
Meaning: hole
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *uŋe
Uralic: *woŋke/a
Dravidian: *vaŋk-
References: Tyler 78; МССНЯ 353; ND 2505 *waŋKV ~ *woŋKV 'hole, orifice'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1180
Proto: *woŋke/a
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: hole, pit
German meaning: Höhle, Grube
Finnish: onkalo 'tiefe Höhlung, Schlucht', dial. ongahta- 'hohl werden', ongerta- '(aus)höhlen'
Estonian: unk (gen. unga) 'Dachsparre', ongas (gen. onka), ungas (gen. unka) 'Rauchloch unter der Spitze des Giebels (an Bauernhäusern)'
Saam (Lapp): vuoggo (N) 'antrium, in quo mus sylvestris tegit; tugurium', vi̊øñka (T), vuøñk (Kld.) 'Höhle (des Fuchses)', vŭ͕ᾰG̀kA (Ko. Not.) 'Höhle (unter einem Steine od. Felsen)'
Khanty (Ostyak): wŏŋk (Trj.), woŋχ (DN), oŋk (O) 'Höhle, Grube (eines Tieres), Lager des Bären', wăŋkǝ (V) 'Lager, Bau (des Bären, Fuchses, Zobels)', wăŋχǝ (DN) 'Grab; Vertiefung (im Boden eines Sees)'
Mansi (Vogul): waŋkā (TJ), wōŋχǝ (KU), woŋkǝ (P), wɔ̄ŋχa (So.) 'Grube, Grab'
Nenets (Yurak): wāŋk (O Nj.) 'Grube, Grab; Höhle des Wildes'
Enets (Yen): bággo 'Grube'
Nganasan (Tawgi): bánka 'Grube, Nest'
Selkup: qoqqa (Ke. Ča. OO) 'eine kleine Grube'
Sammalahti's version: FU *woŋki
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-samm2,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *vaŋk-
Meaning : rat hole
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *vaŋk-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *vaŋk-
Meaning : hole
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : vaŋku
Tamil meaning : orifice, hole, hollow as in a stone, rat-hole, snake-hole, cave, cavern, hollow in a tree
Malayalam : vaŋku
Malayalam meaning : hole of rats, snakes, etc., cave
Tulu : oŋka
Tulu meaning : hole of rats, snakes, etc.
Number in DED : 5212
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVNKV
Meaning : hole
Eurasiatic : *HangV (cf. also *wonkV)
Afroasiatic : Ar. ʔnǧ 'enter', Ch. Kbl hangз́ 'open'; Ch. *wVŋ 'open'?; Berb. *-wVnuH 'well, pit'
Sino-Caucasian : *ɦwǝ̄mgV
Austric : PAA *huŋ 'hole', PAN *buhaŋ 'hole, pit'
Amerind (misc.) : ? *naq̇ʷ 'vulva; hole' (R 814) [+ A]
Reference : ND 57, 2505.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ɦwɨ̄mgV́
Meaning: hole
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ɦwǝ̄mgV
Sino-Tibetan: *k(h)āH
Burushaski: *hiŋ
Comments and references : NSC 54 *HamgV (with some confusion with *ʔaq_V), MCGD 12.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦwǝ̄mgV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hole, window
Proto-Nakh: *ʔanga-laj ( ~-ḳ-)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hingʷVr
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔãkV ( ~ ħ-,-g1-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʡamg ( ~ ħ-)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. An interesting term (with a rather uniform semantic development: 'hole' > 'window' > 'glass').
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʔanga-laj ( ~-ḳ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: glass
Chechen: angali
Comments: Isolated in Chech., but having possible external parallels (if "glass" < "window").
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *hingʷVr
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 window 2 hole, burrow
Andian language: ingur 1 (Tsertsvadze)
Akhvakh: ĩgo 1
Chamalal: inn 2,1
Tindi: hingʷar 1
Karata: hingʷar 1
Godoberi: hingur 1
Comments: Cf. also Akhv. Tseg., Tlan. ingo, Ratl. ũgor, Cham. Gig. hingar, Kar. Tok. hingun (erg. hingura-d) 'window'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʔãkV ( ~ ħ-,-g1-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 window 2 hole
Tsezi: aki 1
Ginukh: aki 1
Khvarshi: ãki 1
Inkhokvari: ãka 1,2
Comments: PTsKh *ʔãkV.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʡamg ( ~ ħ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 niche in wall 2 roof orifice 3 crystal 4 glass
Lezghian: hamga 3
Tabasaran: hamg 4
Agul: ʕagug 4
Kryz: ʕag 1,2
Budukh: ħag 2
Comment: The Ag. word (a reduplicated form) means 'mirror'; cf. Ag. Bursh., Tp. ʡägʷ id. The original meaning is obviously preserved in Kryz. and Bud. ('niche in a wall' or 'roof orifice', whence 'window' > 'glass' in other languages).

    There is a complicated relationship between this PL root (no doubt genuine, cf. the external parallels) and Osset. avg ( < Iran. *āpaka) 'glass'. The Iranian form may have influenced some of the Lezghian forms (especially Ag.; cf. also Arch. kabk 'glass' - which is quite isolated and can not correspond to other Lezg. forms). It is worth noting that the Iranian form was also borrowed in Adygh: PAK *ápk:ǝ 'glass' (Ad. āpč́, Kab. ābǯ), see Abayev 1958, 84, Shagirov 1,4.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *k(h)āH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: open, opening
Chinese: *g_āʔ door.
Burmese: kah to divide, be stretched apart, be spread; tam-khah door, gate.
Kachin: čiŋkha1, nkha1 door, (H) sumkha be wide open.
Lushai: ka to open (as mouth, legs); mouth; KC *ka.
Comments: Tangkhul kha-moŋ door, Rawang phǝŋ-kha id.; Sgaw ka to open. Sh. 46, 400, 407, 427; Ben. 120, 134; Luce 2. Cf. *Qʷɨj, *Qa.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: hù
Preclassic Old Chinese: g(h)āʔ
Classic Old Chinese: g(h)ā́
Western Han Chinese: gā́ (~ ɣ-)
Eastern Han Chinese: gā́ (~ ɣ-)
Early Postclassic Chinese: gā́ (~ ɣ-)
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gā́ (~ ɣ-)
Late Postclassic Chinese: gā́ (~ ɣ-)
Middle Chinese: ɣò
English meaning : door; household
Russian meaning[s]: 1) дверь (одностворчатая); 2) двор, хозяйство; дворовый, подворный; 3) род, семья; 4) суффикс имен существительных, обозначающих профессии; 5) Ху (фамилия)
Comments: Regular Sino-Viet. is hộ. Cf. also Viet. ngõ 'gate' (one of the cases of Viet. rendering Chinese stops as nasals).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 63
Four-angle index: 4132
Karlgren code: 0053 a-b
Vietnamese reading: họ
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 92
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 遇合一上姥匣
ZIHUI: 2073 0932
Beijing: xu 3
Jinan: xu 3
Xi'an: xu 3
Taiyuan: xu 3
Hankou: xu 3
Chengdu: fu 3
Yangzhou: xu 3
Suzhou: ɦǝu 32
Wenzhou: vu 22
Changsha: fu 31
Shuangfeng: ɣǝu 32
Nanchang: фu 32
Meixian: fu 3
Guangzhou: uu 32
Xiamen: hɔ 32
Chaozhou: hou 22
Fuzhou: xou 32
Shanghai: ɦu 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: xu 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *hiŋ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: door, gate
Yasin: hiŋ
Hunza: hiŋ
Nagar: hiŋ
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *hVŋ
Meaning: hole
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *huŋ
Austroasiatic meaning: hole
Proto-Austronesian: *buhaŋ
Austronesian meaning: hole, pit
Austronesian code: 5:42
References: Peiros 1989.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,austr-bibl,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *huŋ
Meaning: hole
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: *hɔŋ V?
Khmer: krǝhu:ŋ; OK krǝhoŋ
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-kmr,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *hɔŋ
Meaning: hole, inside of
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *hɔŋ
Proto-East Katuic: *hɔŋ
References: TK1.43
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *hɔŋ
Meaning: hole, inside of
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: hâŋ
Bru Van Keu meaning: burrow, hole
So: hâŋ
So meaning: hole or opening
Bru: hẫŋ.N
Bru meaning: hole
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-wpre,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,wkatet-so,wkatet-some,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *hɔŋ
Meaning: hole, inside of
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: hɔŋ
Pakoh meaning: inside of (cup, dish, cupboard, hole)
Taojh: hɔŋ
Taojh meaning: hole (VL)
Ngeq: hɔŋ
Ngeq meaning: hole
Kri: hâŋ
Chatong: kahɔŋ
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-tao,ekatet-taome,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-kr,ekatet-ct,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: krǝhu:ŋ
Meaning: hollow, hole; khu:ŋ be sunken; ʒhu:ŋ bay, gulf, cove; chaoŋ hole, pit
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: hoŋ
Old Khmer Meaning: having a hole; krǝhoŋ to be hollow, to hollow
References: P551, P116, JP409
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

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