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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *t`ṓŕe
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: soil, dust
Russian meaning: земля, пыль
Turkic: *tōŕ
Mongolian: *tor-
Tungus-Manchu: *turV
Korean: *tɨ̀rɨ́
Comments: KW 405, АПиПЯЯ 19, 70, 91, 274 (but Jpn. *tùti should be rather attributed to PA *t`ḕŕù), Дыбо 11. Cf. Jpn. doro 'dirt' (PJ *tǝ̀rǝ̀; attested late and initial not clear). Contaminations with *t`ḕŕù were possible.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *tōŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dust
Russian meaning: пыль
Old Turkic: toz (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: toz (MK)
Turkish: toz
Tatar: tuzan
Middle Turkic: toz (Sangl.), tos (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: tọzɔn
Uighur: toz
Sary-Yughur: tos
Azerbaidzhan: toz
Turkmen: tōz, tozan
Khakassian: tozɨn
Shor: tozun
Oyrat: tozɨn
Kirghiz: toz
Kazakh: toz
Noghai: tozan
Bashkir: tuδan
Gagauz: tōz
Karaim: toz
Karakalpak: toz
Comments: VEWT 492, EDT 580-1, Лексика 99-100. Cf. also Yak. tor 'soot'. Despite Лексика, the stem tozan is rather not a deverbative in -ɣan from the verb toz- (cf. the absence of any traces of -ɣ-), but a denominative (like er - eren); this would explain the lack of length in Turkm. This may also be a noun in -n derived from a denominative verb in -а- (Turkm. toza- 'to become dusty', also without length).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *tor-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 snuff, tar 2 flying dust; black and blue spot, bruise
Russian meaning: 1 копоть, гарь 2 пыль в воздухе; синяк
Written Mongolian: tortag (L 827: tortuɣ) 1, toru 2 (L 827)
Khalkha: tortog 1
Buriat: tortog 1
Kalmuck: tortǝg 1
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *turV
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 earth 2 lump of earth
Russian meaning: 1 земля 2 ком земли
Evenki: tur 1(dial.)
Even: tȫr
Negidal: tūj 1
Nanai: tur-qa 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 217-218.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *tɨ̀rɨ́h
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: field, steppe
Russian meaning: поле, степь
Modern Korean: tɨ̄l
Middle Korean: tɨ̀rɨ́ (tɨ̀rɨ́h-)
Comments: Nam 171, KED 533.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ṭVŕV
Meaning: earth, dust
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *tēr-os- (?)
Altaic: *t`ōŕe (cf. also *t`ēŕu)
Kartvelian: *mṭwe[r]- (hardly Georg. txur- - just as txun-, obviously derived < tixa 'dirt, earth')
Dravidian: *tur-
Eskimo-Aleut: *tar-(r)u-
Comments: For PA *t`ēŕu 'dirt' cf. PIE *der- 'faeces'?
References: ND 2422 *ṭoχ/quryV 'dirt, be dirty', 2430 *ṭUryV 'litter, dirt, dust' (hardly different).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *tēres-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: earth
Latin: terra f. `Erde', terrestris, -e `irdisch; auf dem Lande befindlich', terrēnus, -a `irden', extorris `verbannt'
Other Italic: Osk teer[úm], terúm `territōrium', teras `terrae'
Celtic: *tēros-, *tēres- ? > OIr tīr n. `Gebiet'; OCymr, Corn, Bret tir 'tellus'
Russ. meaning: земля
References: WP I 737 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *mṭwe[r]-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: пыль, пылинка
English meaning: dust, speckle of dust
Georgian: mṭwer-
Megrel: ṭwer-
Svan: ṭwi
Svan meaning (Rus.): земля
Svan meaning (Eng.): soil
Laz: mṭwer-
Laz meaning (Rus.): пыль, зола
Laz meaning (Eng.): dust, ashes
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 138, EWK 245-246. Ср. алт. *t`owuŕV 'земля, пыль'. Предположение Климова (1994, 125-127) о заимствовании основы из ПИЕ *twer- 'крутиться, завихряться' крайне сомнительно.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *tur-
Meaning : rust, verdigris
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *tur-
Proto-Telugu : *tru-pp-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *tur-
Meaning : rust, verdigris
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : turu
Tamil meaning : rust, verdigris, flaw
Tamil derivates : turucu, turuci blue vitriol, spot, dirt, blemish, stain, defect, rust; turicu fault, crime, sorrow, affliction, perversity, blue vitriol; tukku, tuppu rust
Malayalam : turiśu
Malayalam meaning : blue vitriol
Malayalam derivates : turumpu, turuvu rust
Kannada : tukku
Kannada meaning : rust of iron
Kannada derivates : tutta, tuttu, tutte blue vitriol
Tulu : tukkụ
Tulu meaning : rust
Tulu derivates : mair(ụ)suttu, (Eng.-Tu. Dict.) mairụtuttu blue vitriol
Number in DED : 3343
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *tru-pp-
Meaning : rust
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : truppu
Dialectal forms (1) : tuppu
Additional forms : Also (SAN) trukku rust, verdigris
Number in DED : 3343
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *tar-(r)u-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: dark, black
Russian meaning: темный, черный
Proto-Yupik: *tarru-
Proto-Inupik: *tau-ʁ- (-si-), *taru-ʁa-
Comments: All the words with meanings like 'shadow, dark, black' are put together in nearby but different entries in CED on pp. 333, 334. Cf. the related stems *tar-ʁa-, *tar-ʁǝ-t- 'black, dark, shadow', *tar-ʁǝ-nǝʁ 'shadow, darkness' and *taʁ-(nǝʁ) 'soul, life force', *taɣŋǝ- (~ -ŋɣ-) 'black'.
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *tarrú-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: darkness, dusk 1, to become dark 2
Russian Meaning: темнота 1, темнеть 2
Sirenik: ta[r]úʁǝχtǝ́qǝχtǝ̄́ʁa 2
Chaplino: taʁru-m vâɫɨnɨŋ* 'grass for bedding place'
Naukan: tarúq 1, tarúʁāquq 2
Nunivak (Peripheral): ~ tāχ 'darkness'
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-nun,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *tạu-ʁ- (-si-), *taru-ʁa-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: darkness 1, dark 2, black 3
Russian meaning: темнота 1, темный 2, черный 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: tāq 1 (taʁʁumi loc.), tāq- 2, 3, tāqsi- init. 2
SPI Dialects: Imaq taqpátoq magn. 'fog', 1, tarúʁaq 'dusk, nightfall', W tāq* 1
North Alaskan Inupik: tāq 1, tāq- (tāqsi- init.) 2, tāʁutaq 'lampshade'
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl tāq* 1, Nu tāq- 3, tāʁutaq 'curtain'
Western Canadian Inupik: tāq 1, tāq- (tāqsi- init.) 2
WCI Dialects: Cor, M tāqtoq* 2
Eastern Canadian Inupik: tāq 1, tāq- (tāʁsi- init.) 2, 'to make a shadow', to darken or hide'
Greenlandic Inupik: tāq (taχχup rel.) (tâq*) 1, tāʁ- (tāʁsi- init.) 2, tāʁutāʁ- (târutaer-*) 'to get out of s.o.'s light'
GRI Dialects: NG taχχiq- 'to shade, to get in someone's light'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 333
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : TVRV
Meaning : earth, dust
Eurasiatic : *ṭVŕV
Afroasiatic : Cush. *ḍur, Berb. *-ḍir-, Chad. *tVr- 'dirt', Ar. ṭrym
Sino-Caucasian : *tV́rV̆
Reference : ND 2422.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *tV́rV̆
Meaning: dust, dirt, powder
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *türV (~ -l-)
Yenisseian: *dǝʔǝr1-
Burushaski: *ther
Comments and references : MCGD 3. Different in HGC 30, WFR 19.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *türV (~ -l-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dung, mud
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *tirV
Proto-Tsezian: *tar ( ~ -ɔ-)
Notes: An And.-Tsez. isogloss; however, borrowing is improbable. Cf. perhaps also (with metathesis) Tab. riči-n, Düb. riti-n ( < PL *rätV ~ *ritV) 'charcoal; ashes'.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *tirV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 ashes, dust 2 dog's dung 3 sleet
Avar: terét 3
Akhvakh: tereti 1
Tindi: tira 2
Comments: In Av. and Akhv. the root is reduplicated. Tind. tira > Inkh. tira 'dog's dung'; Av. terét > Arch. teret 'sleet'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,aandet-tnd,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *tar ( ~ -ɔ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sheep's dung
Bezhta: tär (Tlad.)
Comments: Isolated within Tsezian, but having Andian parallels.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *dǝʔǝr1-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: powder; dirt
Ket: dʌ:ĺ3 powder (flour) made of ground fish ('порса')
Yug: dʌ:hr4 id.
Kottish: taran 'dirt'
Comments: ССЕ 220. Werner 1, 215 <*dǝʔǝʎǝ / *dǝgǝʎ>, doubting the attribution of Kott. taran.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *ther
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: dirt
Yasin: ther
Hunza: ther
Nagar: ther
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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