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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ti̯ṓle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Turkic: *d(i)ālak
Mongolian: *deliɣün
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯō(l)
Korean: *tira ( ~ č-)
Japanese: *(d)í ( ~ *(d)ǝ́-i)
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 14, Лексика 279. Jpn. *(d)ǝ-i goes back to a suffixed form *ti̯ṓl(e)-gV ( = Mong. deli-ɣün).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *d(i)ālak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Old Turkic: tal (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: talaq (MK)
Turkish: dalak
Tatar: talaq
Middle Turkic: talaq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: talɔq
Azerbaidzhan: dalaG
Turkmen: dālaq
Yakut: tāl
Kazakh: talaq
Noghai: talaq
Bashkir: talaq
Balkar: talaq
Gagauz: dalaq 1; 'плавательный пузырь'
Karaim: talaq
Karakalpak: talaq
Kumyk: talaq
Comments: VEWT 457, EDT 495, ЭСТЯ 3, 137-138, Лексика 279. Tat. > Chuv. talak.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-jak,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *deliɣün
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Written Mongolian: deligün (L 250: deligüü)
Middle Mongolian: deli'un (HY 47), dolän (IM), dilun (MA), dǝlǝkun (LH)
Khalkha: delǖn
Buriat: delǖn
Kalmuck: delǖn
Ordos: delǖ
Dagur: delu(kin), (Тод. Даг. 136) delkin, delig
Shary-Yoghur: dölön
Monguor: dǝlǖ, dilǖ (SM 55)
Comments: KW 86, MGCD 215. Mong. > Evk. delkin etc., see Poppe 1966, 192, 1972, 96, Doerfer MT 38, Rozycki 58.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ǯō
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: gall
Russian meaning: желчь
Evenki: ǯō
Even: ǯō
Negidal: ǯō
Orok: ǯō
Nanai: ǯōl
Oroch: ǯō
Udighe: ǯō (Корм. 233)
Comments: ТМС 1, 260.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *tira ( ~ č-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Modern Korean: čira, čirä
Comments: KED 1529.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *(d)í ( ~ *(d)ǝ́-i)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: liver
Russian meaning: печень
Old Japanese: i
Middle Japanese:
Comments: JLTT 420 (gives the meaning 'gall bladder').
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *tV(H)ʎV
Meaning: spleen
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ti̯ṓle
Kartvelian: ? *ṭq̇irṗ-
References: МССНЯ 364; ND 2355 *[ṭ]äχl̄a ~ [ṭ]äl̄χa 'spleen' (+ Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ṭq̇irṗ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: селезенка
English meaning: spleen
Georgian: ṭq̇irṗ-, ṭq̇liṗ-
Megrel: ṭq̇iṗ-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 184.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVLV
Meaning : spleen, liver
Eurasiatic : *tV(H)ʎV
Afroasiatic : *ṭiḥal-
Sino-Caucasian : *Hƛ̣älV́
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *ƛU- "lung".
Reference : ND 2355.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ṭiḥal- (?)
Meaning: interiors
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ṭiḥāl- ~ *ṭu/alḥīm- 'spleen'
Western Chadic: *till- 'heart'
Central Chadic: *tVl- 'liver/ 1, 'lower part of the kidney' 2
East Chadic: *[ṭ]VHVl- 'liver'
Omotic: *lanḍ- <*ṭal-n-? 'pancreas, spleen'
Notes: Scarce data.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 2228
Proto-Semitic: *ṭiḥāl- ~ *ṭu/alḥīm-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Akkadian: ṭulīmu, tulīmu OB, SB [AHw 1394]
Hebrew: PB ṭǝḥōl [Ja 528]
Judaic Aramaic: ṭǝḥōlā, ṭaḥălā [Ja 528].

    ṭǝḥōlā may be a Hebraism

Syrian Aramaic: ṭǝḥālā [Brock 272]
Modern Aramaic: MMND ṭahāla 'spleen' [M MND 521]
Mandaic Aramaic: ṭahala, ṭahaila, ṭihaila, ṭahila [DM 173]
Arabic: ṭiḥāl- [BK 2 61]
Amharic: ARG ṭaḥa [LHar 152]
Harari: ṭāḥa [ibid.].

    On the loss of -l in HAR see [ibid. 5]

East Ethiopic: SEL ṭār, WOL ṭalä [LGur 616]
Gurage: MUH MSQ GOG SOD ṭala, CHA ṭar, ENN END EŽA ṭara, GYE ṭāra [ibid.]
Mehri: ṭɛlḥáym [JM 410]
Jibbali: ṭɛlḥím [JJ 277].

    Cf. ṭɔlḥ 'blood and discharge with an afterbirth, diarrhoea' [ibid.]

Harsusi: ṭelḥáym [JH 130] (given with a question mark)
Soqotri: QALAN-V ṭálḥǝn, ʕELHA ṭálḥem [SSL LS 1477]
Notes: The *ṭu/alḥīm- variant is metathetic, attested in AKK and MSA only, with the *-Vm.

    Note a presumably derived (if not contaminated) verb in ARB ṭḥl 'étre trouble, sale, couleur de la rate; étre gâté et sentir mauvais, et étre remplit de fange qui sent mauvais (se dit d'une eau croupissante)' [BK 2 61] and what looks a strikingly similar semantic development (from *ṭu/alḥīm- 'spleen') in ARB ṭulḥūm- 'aqua corrupta et foetens' [Fraytag III 63] (cf. also a variant root ṭalh_- 'eau fangeuse, rempli de vermine et qui n'est pas potable' [BK 2 95]) and TGR ṭǝlḥam 'disease of cattle (poisoning caused by grass or by water on the place of a fire or a forest)' [LH 607]. This parallelism, however, is problematic not only because *ṭu/alḥīm- 'spleen' is retained neither in ARB nor in TGR, but also because the very meaning shift 'spleen' > 'putrid water' is not easy to explain.

    [Brock 272]: SYR, JUD, HBR PB, ARB; [AHw 1394]: HBR PB, JUD, ARB; [LGur 616]: GUR, ARB

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-hbr,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-amh,semet-hrr,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *tilV
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'heart'
Bolewa: tìlǝw [Kr]
Ngamo: tili [Kr]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-bol,wchet-ngm,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *tVl-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'liver' 1, 'lower part of the kidney' 2 (bas de r.)
Musgu: etteltel, etetel 1 [Luk]
Zime-Batna: tēlé 2 [Sa]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-msg,cchet-zbt,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *[ṭ]VHVl-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'liver'
Tumak: tèlú [Cp]
Ndam: tā:lū [JgD]
Notes: initial*t- > d- in Tumak, Ndam, Somray
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-tum,echet-ndm,echet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *lanḍ- <*ṭal-n-?
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'pancreas, spleen'
Dime: ? Dime č̣elay 'belly'
Ongota: lanḍe 'pancreas, spleen' Fl. Ong.
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-dim,omoet-ong,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *Hƛ̣älV́
Meaning: liver, belly
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *Hläƛ̣V (/*Hƛ̣älV)
Burushaski: *tal
Comments and references : DCE 8.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *Hläƛ̣V
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *riƛ̣V
Proto-Lak: t:iliḳ
Proto-Dargwa: *duleḳ
Proto-Lezghian: *läƛ̣
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Length of the final vowel is unclear: the Av. paradigm C and the structure of the root in PA (*RVCV) point to a short vowel; however, Eastern Dagestan forms presuppose a form like *Hläƛ̣V̄. Metathesized *Hƛ̣älV might have also existed (cf. Avar ṭul - if it belongs here, see above), in which case we can also compare Urart. zel-dǝ 'liver' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 48-49).

    Abdokov's (1982, 83) attempt to compare this root with WC *c̣ʷA 'liver' should be regarded as unsuccessful (for phonetic reasons, and because of a better etymology for the WC form, q.v.).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *riƛ̣V
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver
Avar: ṭul
Chadakolob: ṭul
Andian language: reliƛ:i
Akhvakh: riƛ̣eƛ:i
Chamalal: jelaƛ:
Tindi: relaƛ:
Karata: reƛ̣ajiƛ:
Botlikh: rehin
Bagvalal: leleʎ:
Godoberi: leliƛa
Comments: Av. paradigm C (ṭulá-l, ṭúla-l). We should note that the position of the Avar word is somewhat dubious: it may belong here only if ṭ < *ƛ̣ (then it would be a metathesized form of the same root which is reflected in all Andian languages). However, there seems to be (in this particular case) no evidence from Southern Avar dialects for Proto-Avar *ƛ̣ - all dialectal forms seem to point to *ṭ. Thus the Avar word is either unrelated, or the dialectal evidence should be explained by borrowing from literary Avar.

    As for Andian languages, the simple root *riƛ̣V is reflected only in Botl. (where rehi-n < *reʔi-n < *riƛ̣i-n with a suffixed -n) and Kar. Tok. relʔi-r (with suffixed -r). All other forms go back to a compound *riƛ̣a-jiƛ:i (see *riƛ:i for etymology of the second part). Cf. also Bagv. Tlis. releƛ, Akhv. Tseg. riṭajiƛ:i, Tlan. ruṭeƛ:i, Ratl. riƛ̣ajƛ:i, Cham. Gig. relaƛ etc.

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: t:iliḳ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver
Lak form: t:iliḳ
Comments: 4 class. Cf. Khosr. t:iliḳ.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *duleḳ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver
Akusha: duleḳ
Chiragh: dilaḳ
Comments: Cf. also Kub. diliḳ, Tsud. duleḳ 'liver', Ur. duliḳ 'lung' etc.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *läƛ̣
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver
Lezghian: leq̇
Tabasaran: liḳ
Agul: leḳ
Rutul: laq̇
Tsakhur: ḳɨl'ḳam
Kryz: läħä-läħkäm
Budukh: (laʕa)-leq̇
Comment: In Tsakh. the form is reduplicated (under influence of zɨlzam 'spleen' q.v.). In Kryz. there occurred an irregular change *läq̇ä-n > läħkän under influence of läħä 'black' (the form actually means 'black liver', cf. the same combination in Bud.). 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages.

    See Бокарев 1961, 60; Лексика 1971, 122; Гигинейшвили 1977, 104.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *tal
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: belly, stomach
Hunza: tal
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,

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