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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *si̯ā̀jri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: white
Russian meaning: белый; желтый
Turkic: *siarɨg
Mongolian: *sira
Tungus-Manchu: *siarū-
Korean: *hắi-
Japanese: *sìruà-
Comments: KW 349, Владимирцов 146, 318, Lee 1958, 117, АПиПЯЯ 26, 73, 86, 278, Мудрак Дисс. 195. Mong. is not borrowed from Turkic, despite Щербак 1997, 144 (Doerfer TMN 3, 221 says: "aus lautlichen Gründen unwahrscheinlich" (?)); the meaning 'yellow', however, may be secondarily induced by the Turkic forms - since the original meaning of the root, preserved also in Chuvash, was most certainly 'white'. Medial *-j- is reconstructed to account for the loss of *-r- in Kor. Cf. also Old Koguryo *šilap 'white' (see Miller 1979, 7).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *siarɨg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 yellow 2 white
Russian meaning: 1 желтый 2 белый
Old Turkic: śarɨɣ (Orkh.), sarɨɣ (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: sarɨɣ (MK)
Turkish: sarɨ 1
Tatar: sarɨ 1
Middle Turkic: sarɨɣ 1 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: sariq 1
Uighur: seriq 1
Sary-Yughur: sarɨɣ 1
Azerbaidzhan: sarɨ 1
Turkmen: sārɨ 1
Khakassian: sarɨɣ 1
Oyrat: sarɨ 1
Halaj: sāruɣ 'orange'
Chuvash: šorъ 2
Yakut: araɣas 1; arɨ̄ 'butter'
Dolgan: arɨ̄ 'butter'
Tuva: sarɨɣ 1
Tofalar: sarɨɣ 1
Kirghiz: sarɨ 1
Kazakh: sarɨ 1
Noghai: sarɨ 1
Bashkir: harɨ 1
Balkar: sarɨ 1
Gagauz: sarɨ 1
Karaim: sarɨ 1
Karakalpak: sarɨ 1
Salar: sarɨ 1
Kumyk: sarɨ 1
Comments: VEWT 403-4, EDT 848, Лексика 601, Федотов 2 462-463, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 37. Vowel length in Turkm. and Khal. must be secondary (influenced by forms like Mong. sāral 'yellowish'?). Bulg. > Hung. sár, sárga, dial. sárog 'yellow', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 227.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *sira
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: yellow
Russian meaning: желтый
Written Mongolian: sira (L 714)
Middle Mongolian: šira (HY 41, SH), širā (IM), širă (MA)
Khalkha: šar
Buriat: šara
Kalmuck: šarǝ
Ordos: šara
Dongxian: šǝra, šɨra
Baoan: šira
Dagur: šara, šar (Тод. Даг. 183), šari (MD 214)
Shary-Yoghur: šǝra
Monguor: śira (SM 397)
Mogol: šira; ZM sirā (13-7)
Comments: KW 349, MGCD 707. Mong. > Manchu sira (see Rozycki 184).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *siarū-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lightning, rainbow 2 light
Russian meaning: 1 молния, радуга 2 свет, светлый
Evenki: sē̂rū-n 1
Literary Manchu: šari 2
Orok: sē̂rro, sịro 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 72, 381.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-man,tunget-ork,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *hắi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white
Russian meaning: белый
Modern Korean: hi-
Middle Korean: hắi-
Comments: Nam 482, KED 1898.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sìruà-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white
Russian meaning: белый
Old Japanese: sirwo-
Middle Japanese: sìrò-
Tokyo: shiró-
Kyoto: shíro-
Kagoshima: shiro-
Nase: šìrù-
Shuri: šírú-
Hateruma: ssò-
Yonakuni: tzʔù-
Comments: JLTT 840.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *c'VjrV
Meaning: grey
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *(s)ḱeiro- (cf. also Balt. sark-, IE *sAr(ǝ)-t-?)
Altaic: *si̯ā̀jri [cf. also *si̯ū́jro 2090]
Uralic: *ćerV
Dravidian: *Ciṛ- (?)
References: (МССНЯ 363); ND 2114 *śEXarV 'bright, daybreak' (Ur.+Alt. + Sem.); 2220 *ŝihrV 'gray, bright (same Ur. + incorr. Drav. + Arab.); 2226 *ŝERḲV 'red, yellow' (Balt. + Mong. + Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k'ēy(w)-, *k'yē(w)-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: grey
Tokharian: ? B kwele ( < *kiwo-lo-) 'black, dark grey' (Adams 239)
Old Indian: śyāvá- `dark-brown, brown, dark'; śyāmá- `black, dark blue or brown or grey or green' (with -y- on analogy with śyāvá-); śārá- `variegated'
Avestan: syāva- 'schwarz'; sāma- 'schwarz'
Old Greek: kīrró- `rotgelb, gelbbraun'
Slavic: *sīvъ(jь), *sīnjьjь; *śḗrъ(jь)
Baltic: *čī̂w-a-/*čī̃w-a- adj., *čī̃w-ia-/*čī̂w-ia- c., *čē̂-m-a- / *čē̃-m-a- adj.
Germanic: *xaiw-in-a-, *xair-u-, *xair-i- adj.
Latin: caerulus, caeruleus `tief-, dunkelblau, ultramarin'
Celtic: Ir cīar (< *kei̯ro-) `dunkel'
Russ. meaning: серый, сивый
References: WP I 360 f, 420; Buck 67.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: си́вый,
Near etymology: сив, сива́, си́во, укр. си́вий, блр. сíвы, др.-русск. сивъ, сербск., цслав. сивъ σποδοειδής, болг. сив, сербохорв. си̏в, си̏ва, си̏во, словен. sìv, ж. síva, чеш., слвц. sivý, польск. siwy, в.-луж. sywy "серый, водянистый".
Further etymology: Родственно лит. šývas "светлосерый, сивый, седой", др-.прусск. sуwаn "серый", англос. hǽwе "голубой, багряный, серый, зеленый" (*haiwina-), далее сюда же др.-инд. c̨yāvás "темный", авест. sуāvа-, осет. sаu "черный" (Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 318; Траутман, ВSW 306; Арr. Sprd. 428; Мейе, Ét 364; Лёвенталь, Farbenbez. 14; Хольтхаузен, Aengl. Wb. 147; Перссон 32; Эндзелин, СБЭ 198; Торп 88 и сл. Едва ли связано с си́ний, сия́ть.
Pages: 3,617
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *čī̂w-a-/*čī̃w-a- adj., *čī̃w-ia-/*čī̂w-ia- c., *čē̂-m-a- / *čē̃-m-a- adj.
Meaning: grey, white
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: šī́va- `weiss, scimmelfarbig', šī̃va- `id.', šī́vi-s, šī̃vi-s `Schimmel'; šḗma-, šē̃ma- `asch-, blau-, hellgrau (vom Vieh)', šḗmē `eine Kuh von blaugrauer Farbe'
Old Prussian: sywan `grau' V. 461
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xairu-, *xairia-, *xain=
Meaning: gray, hoar
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hār-r, hǟr-r `grau'
Old Danish: hɔr
Old English: hār `hoar, hoary, grey, old'; hǟwen `blue, azure, purple, discoloured, green'
English: hoar
Old Frisian: hēr
Old Saxon: hēr `alt, eehrwürdig'
Middle Dutch: heer, gheheer `aanzienlijk, voortreffelijk'
Dutch: heerlijk
Middle Low German: hēr
Old High German: hēr `ehrwürdig, alt' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: hēr, hēre 'hoch, vornehm; heilig, stolz; freudig'
German: hehr
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-odan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 63
Proto: *ćerV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: grey
German meaning: grau
Udmurt (Votyak): ǯ́ar (S), źar (K), ʒ́ar (J) 'Morgendämmerung', ʒ́arekti̮- 'verbleichen, blaß werden'
Komi (Zyrian): ʒ́or (S P) 'grau, grauhaarig (S P); unreif (Beere) (P)', ʒ́o.riʒ́ (PO) 'недоспелый, недозрелый (о ягоде)'
Mansi (Vogul): šir (P), sir (K), sēri (N) 'Dämmerung, Abendgrauen, Morgen, Tagesanbruch'
Hungarian: szir, zyr, zir (altung.) 'grau', szűr 'Bauernmantel, Grobtuchmantel', szürke, zewrke 'grau; (altung.) braun, tiefschwarz'
References: FUV; Budenz MUSz 321; Donn. VglWb. 677; КЭСКЯ; MSzFgrE; TESz; ИВПЯ 80
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-lit,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *siẓ- (?)
Meaning : yellow, saffron
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *siṛiŋ- (?)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-gnd,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *siṛiŋ- (?)
Meaning : yellow, saffron
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *sṛī̆ŋ-a
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kui,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *sṛī̆ŋ-a
Meaning : turmeric
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : sṛīnga "turmeric; the colour of turmeric, saffron, yellow"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : hinga "turmeric; the colour of turmeric, saffron, yellow"
Kuwi (Schulze) : hinga
Sunkarametta Kuwi : hīŋga
Parja Kuwi : hīŋga
Kuwi (Israel) : hīŋgeri "yellow"
Additional forms : Also Kui_P sīnga turmeric
Notes : The long vowel is probably original, since *sṛīŋga < *siṛ-ŋga; however, reasons of shortening in several Kuwi dialects are unclear.
Number in DED : 2608
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVRV
Meaning : grey
Eurasiatic : *c'VjrV
Afroasiatic : ? Sem. *šaħr- 'daybreak, dawn', Ah. srr 'be bright'
Sino-Caucasian : *sVrV́
Reference : (МССНЯ 363); ND 2114, 2220.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *sVŕV́
Meaning: yellow, grey
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *sV̆rV
Yenisseian: *su(ʔ)ŕ-
Basque: *suri
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *sV̆rV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grey
Proto-Nakh: *sire(-n)
Proto-Tsezian: *zerV ( ~ z:-,-l-)
Notes: A Nakh-Tsez. isogloss. Although similar colour names exist in other linguistic families (cf. Russ. серый < Slav. *xĕrъ, Mong. sira 'yellow'), the EC root seems to be genuine (neither the PN nor the Tsez. form can be explained by borrowing).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *sire(-n)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grey
Chechen: sira
Ingush: sira
Comments: Cf. also Chech. (in Uslar's recording) siri id.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *zerV ( ~ z:-,-l-,-ɨ-,-ǝ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grey
Tsezi: zira
Khvarshi: zara (Radzhibov)
Comments: PTsKh *zǝRa.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-khv,cezet-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *suŕ-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: yellow
Ket: sulemam (М., Сл.)
Kottish: šui
Pumpokol: túl-si (Сл.)
Comments: ССЕ 278. In Kottish *suŕ- 'yellow' and *sur- 'red, blood' are distinctly opposed; in Ket and Pumpokol they merged for phonetic reasons (merging of the reflexes of *-r- and *-ŕ-). On Werner's reconstruction <*sʌj / *sʌn-> see under *son-.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-kot,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *suri
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: white
Bizkaian: zuri
Gipuzkoan: zuri
High Navarrese: zuri
Low Navarrese: zuri
Salazarese: zuri
Lapurdian: zuri
Baztanese: zuri
Aezkoan: zuri
Zuberoan: zúri
Roncalese: zuri
Comments: The expressive palatal variant xuri /šuri/ is also widespread, esp. in the East (BNV,LAB, ZBR) = GIP txuri /čuri/. In some dialects the expressive form has supplanted the unmarked form in everyday use.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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