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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŏli ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to die; to be hungry, exhausted
Russian meaning: умирать; быть голодным, истощенным
Turkic: *öl-
Mongolian: *öl-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)olbu-
Comments: A Western isogloss. See EAS 146, KW 295, Poppe 108 (but the Evk. form that he lists is probably < Mong.), TMN 2, 112, АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 13; see further Nostratic parallels (Ural. *welV et al.) in МССНЯ, 367.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *öl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to die 2 (*öl-tür-) to kill
Russian meaning: 1 умирать 2 (*öl-tür-) убивать
Old Turkic: öl- 1 (Yen., OUygh.), ölür- 2 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: öl- 1 (MK, KB), öldür- 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: öl- 1, öldür- 2
Tatar: ül- 1, üter- 2
Middle Turkic: öl- 1 (Sangl.), ölür- 2 (Abush.), öltür- 2 (Abush.)
Uzbek: ụl-, ụldir- 2
Uighur: öl- 1, öltür- 2
Sary-Yughur: jül- 1, jülɨr- 2
Azerbaidzhan: öl- 1, öldür- 2
Turkmen: öl- 1, öldür- 2
Khakassian: öl- 1, öder- 2
Shor: öl- 1, ödür- 2
Oyrat: öl- 1, öltür- 2
Halaj: hil-/he.l-, öl- 'to die (of animals)' ( < Az.)
Chuvash: vil- 1, vǝʷler- 2
Yakut: öl- 1, ölör- 2
Dolgan: öl- 1, ölör- 2
Tuva: öl- 1, ölür- 2
Tofalar: öl- 1, ölür- 2
Kirghiz: öl- 1, öltür- 2
Kazakh: öl- 1, ölti_r- 2
Noghai: öl- 1, öltir- 2
Bashkir: ül- 1, ülter- 2
Balkar: öl- 1, öltür- 2
Gagauz: jöl- 1, öldür- 2
Karaim: oĺ- 1, oĺder- 2
Karakalpak: öl- 1, öltir- 2
Salar: ül- 1, üldyr- 2
Kumyk: öl- 1, öltür- 2
Comments: VEWT 371; ЭСТЯ 1, 525-527, TMN 2, 112, 162-3; EDT 125-126, 133-134, 151, Stachowski 199.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *öl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be hungry 2 hungry
Russian meaning: 1 быть голодным 2 голодный
Written Mongolian: ölüs- 1, ölüŋ 2 (L 634)
Middle Mongolian: oles- (HY 25, SH), ǝleso- (IM), uläs- (MA) 1, ulǝs- (LH), ulūs- (Lig.VMI)
Khalkha: öls- 1, ölön 2
Buriat: üld- 1, ülen 2
Kalmuck: öls- 1
Ordos: ölödö- 1, öl 'hunger'
Dongxian: oliesu- 1
Baoan: olos-, olǝs- 1
Dagur: (x)unsu- (Тод. Даг. 171 unsu-, 180 xunsu-), ulese- 1 (MD 232), ulsu- 1
Shary-Yoghur: öl 'hunger'
Monguor: losǝ- (SM 226) 1
Mogol: üläsu-; ZM olaṣ (6-2a)
Comments: KW 295, MGCD 541, 542.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *(x)olbu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: soul of the dead; shadow
Russian meaning: душа умершего; тень
Evenki: elbu, olbu-n
Comments: ТМС 2, 445. Attested only in Evk., with probable parallels in Turkic and Mongolian.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *HwelV
Meaning: fight, kill
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *Hu̯el- (+ *(o)wol- <PIH *-lH-> 1233)
Altaic: *ŏli ( ~ -e)
Kartvelian: *ɣur- (? *ɣul-)
Dravidian: *vel- 'to conquer, overcome' (4595) (Tamil-Malayalam)
Comments: [For Kartv. cf. also TM *ura- 'die', *urkan- 'faint'; PD *or_- 'to finish, die' 1009; and cf. PD *ol- / *val- 'to grow weak, pain, distress' (1004, 5281) ].
References: МССНЯ 367; ND 129 *ʕol̄V 'starve, die' (Alt.-IE, but not Hitt. hull-, but Luw. walliya- 'of the dead' - perhaps indeed two different roots, cf. also ND 2476 *wel[h]V, 712 *GuLV).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *wel- <PIH *Hʷ->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: death (in the battle); killed (in the battle)
Hittite: hulla-/-i- (I) '(nieder)schlagen, bekämpfen' (Tischler 273ff), hullanza(i)- c. 'Kampf' (279), hulhulija- 'im Kampfe erschlagen' (280)
Slavic: *vāljātī: Czech vāleti, -eju `bojovati', *vāljьkā: Czech valka война (> польск.)
Baltic: *wel-ia- c., *wel-iā̃ f.; *wel̂-n-a- (1) m.; *wēl-iā̂ f.
Germanic: *wal-a- m., n.; *wṓl-a- m., *wṓl-ō f.
Russ. meaning: смерть в бою; убитый в бою
References: WP I 304 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *wel-ia- c., *wel-iā̃ f.; *wel̂-n-a- (1) m.; *wēl-iā̂ f.
Meaning: dead man's spirit
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: vē̃lēs, vẽlēs pl. `geisterhafte Gestalten der Verstorbener'; vēlē̃, velē̃ `Seele (des Verstorbenen), Geist'; vẽlina-s `Teufel', dial. velna-s `id.'
Lettish: veli-s, pl. vel̨i `Geister der Verstorbenen; Zeit von Michaelis bis Martini, Geisterzeit'; vęl̃n-s `Teufel'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *wala-z, -n; *wṓla-z, *wṓlō
Meaning: slain, dead
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: val-r m. `der Tote auf dem Walplatz'
Norwegian: valstad `Kampfplatz'
Old English: wäl, -es n. `slain, dead, number of slain; single corpse, slain person; slaughter, carnage', wäl-cyrge (-cyrge, -cyrie), -an f. `chooser of the slain', wōl, -es m., -e f. `pest, pestilence, plague, murrain'
Old Saxon: wal-dād `Mord', wōl `Verderben, Seuche'
Old High German: wal n. `die Leichen auf dem Schlachtfeld; Schlachtfeld, Blutbad', wuol `Niederlage, Verderben, Seuche'
Middle High German: wal, wale st. n., m., f. 'schlachtfeld, wallstatt, kampfplatz'; wuol st. m. (md. wūl, wōl) 'niederlage, verderben; sitz, thron'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oengl,germet-osax,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 2133
Root: u̯el-8
English meaning: to tear, wound; to steal
German meaning: `reißen, an sich reißen, rauben; reißen = ritzen, verwunden, Wunde'; daneben Worte für `töten, Blutbad, Schlachtfeld und die Leichen darauf; Blut'
General comments: mit dem Ablaut u̯ol- : u̯ōl-, die vielleicht als selbständige Gruppe (A.) abzulösen sind
Material: A. Air. fuil f. `Blut', mir. fuili `blutige Wunden', cymr. gweli (*u̯olīso-?) `Wunde', corn. goly, Pl. golyow, mbret. goulyow ds.; aisl. valr m. `die Leichen auf dem Schlachtfeld', ags. wæl n. `ds., Schlachtfeld, Blutbad', ahd. wal n. ds. (`Walstatt'), as. wal-dād `Mord', aisl.valkyria `Walküre', ags. wælcyrige `erinys, Zauberin' m.; dehnstufig ahd. wuol `Niederlage, Verderben, Seuche' (aber wuolen `wühlen' s. u. *u̯el- `drehen'), as. wōl, ags. wōl m. f. `Seuche, Pest';

    klr. valjava `mit Gefallenen bedecktes Schlachtfeld', čech. váleti `bekriegen', válka `Krieg', wruss. valka `Kampf, Holzfällen', valčić `siegen', apr. ūlint (aus *wālint) `kämpfen';

    lit. vẽlės oder vė̃lės `die geisterhaften Gestalten der Verstorbenen', vêlinas, heute vélnias `Teufel' (ursprüngl. `Gespenst' wie alit. veluokas), lett. veli `die Geister der Verstorbenen'.

    B. Gr. ἁλίσκομαι `werde gefangen' (thess. αλίσσκε̃ται, ark. αλόντοις), Aor. ()αλω̃ναι, ἑά̄λων (*ἠ-άλων), ἁλωτός `gefangen', vermutlich auch ion. att. εἵλωτες, εἱλω̃ται `Heloten' (aus lak. *ἥλωτες für *ἐ-ελωτες); ἀνᾱλίσκω (*ἀνα-αλίσκω), Fut. ἀνᾱλώσω `aufwenden, verbrauchen, töten' (`*zum Gebrauch hernehmen, an sich reißen'), ἀνᾱλόω `zerstöre';

    hom. att. οὐλή `Wunde, Narbe' (*ολνά̄ oder *ολσά̄), np. valāna, vālāna `Wunde', lat. volnus, -eris `Wunde' (*u̯l̥snos = air. flann `Blut; blutrot'); γέλλαι τι̃λαι Hes. (d. i. έλλαι; Fick KZ. 44, 438);

    lat. vellō, -ere, velli und volsi (vulsi), volsum (vulsum) `rupfen, zupfen, raufen; ausreißen, ausrupfen, abzupfen';

    got. wilwan `rauben', wulwa `Raub';

    hitt. u̯alḫmi `bekämpfe';

    im Germ. die Weiterbildung mnd. wlete f. `Wunde, Schmiß', mhd. letzen `verletzen' (idg. *[e]led-), wohl auch afries. wlemma `beschädigen, verletzen', mnd. wlame `Gebrechen, Sündhaftigkeit';

    hitt. hullāi-, hullii̯a- `bekämpfen' (?).

References: WP. I 304 f. WH. II 729 f., 827, Trautmann 348, Frisk 74;
See also: vielleicht dazu u̯elk-1 `ziehen'.
Pages: 1144-1145
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-seealso,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ɣul-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: уничтожать
English meaning: to destroy
Georgian: mo-m-ɣul-al-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): уничтоженный, раздавленный
Georgian meaning (Engl.): destroyed, squeezed
Laz: ɣur-
Laz meaning (Rus.): уничтожать (но ср. ɣur- 'умирать' < *ɣar-)
Laz meaning (Eng.): to destroy (but cf. ɣur- 'to die' < *ɣar-)
Notes and references: EWK 402. Ср. ПИЕ *Hwel- 'разбивать, уничтожать', алт. *oli 'умирать, голодать'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVLV
Meaning : die, starve
Eurasiatic : *HwelV
Afroasiatic : Cush., Ar. (?)
Sino-Caucasian : *=iwƛ̣Ĕ
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *ƛV "to die".
Reference : ND 129, 2476 (Nostr. + rather weak SH).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=iwƛ̣Ĕ
Meaning: to die
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=iwƛ̣Ĕ
Sino-Tibetan: *ƛij
Burushaski: *-́l-
Basque: *hil
Comments and references : NSC 63 *(wV)ƛ̣V, LDC 30.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=iwƛ̣Ĕ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die, to kill
Proto-Nakh: *=aŁ-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iƛ̣-
Proto-Tsezian: *=iƛ̣-
Proto-Lak: =i=č̣a-
Proto-Dargwa: *=ibḳ-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔiƛ̣e
Proto-Khinalug: ḳ-
Proto-West Caucasian: *ƛ̣ǝ-/*ƛ̣a-
Notes: Most languages reflect the stem *-iwƛ̣Ĕ- (with class prefixes; the variant without class prefixes is probably reflected in PN dur. stem *la- with vowel reduction); the Ablaut grade *-uwƛ̣Ĕ is reflected in some Lezg., And. languages and in Darg. See Абдоков 1983, 165.

    Some Lezghian languages reflect a derivate *ʔiƛ̣i-n > *ƛ̣in meaning 'oath' (cf. Lezg. q̇in, Tsakh. ḳin). It seems thus quite proper to compare HU forms: Hurr. el(a)mǝ 'oath', Urart. elm-u/ošǝ 'vow' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 33).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=aŁ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die
Chechen: =al-
Ingush: =al-
Batsbi: =al-ar
Comments: *-Ł- reconstructed on basis of Bacb. Mats. =aʎ-, Kad. =al-. The present/ future form is PN *la (Chech.,Ing.,Bacb. la).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=iƛ̣-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die
Avar: =alʔ- (Chokh.)
Akhvakh: =iƛ̣-
Karata: =ilʔ- (Tok.)
Botlikh: =iʔ-
Comments: With Ablaut cf. also Kar. =oƛ̣- (Arch., Anch. =olʔ-) 'to be(come) ill', perhaps also And. b-il-in- 'to shoot' (although the -n-conjugation is not clear).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=iƛ̣-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kill
Bezhta: =iƛ̣-
Gunzib: =iƛ̣-
Comments: PGB *-iƛ̣-. With Ablaut cf. perhaps also Bezht. (Tlad.) =äƛ̣-el- 'to beat, to hit' (in Tlad. the root =iƛ̣-, besides 'to kill' means also 'to throw').
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =i=č̣a-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to die; to kill
Lak form: =i=č̣a-
Comments: G. pr. =i=ḳu-nu.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ibḳ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: die
Akusha: =ebḳ-es
Chiragh: =ebḳ- / =ubḳ-
Comments: Cf. also Ur. =ibḳ-/=ubḳ-.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔiƛ̣e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: die, kill
Lezghian: q̇i-
Tabasaran: ji=ḳ-
Agul: ḳ-
Rutul: ji=q̇e-
Tsakhur: q-e=ḳe-
Kryz: q̇äj-
Budukh: s-a=q̇-
Archi: ḳi-
Udi: bi-es
Comment: Other relevant forms: Lezg. inf. r-eq̇i-z, pret. q̇e-na, imper. jiq̇; Ag. Bursh. ḳi-s; Rut. plur. -q̇ɨrq̇a-s (a form with reduplication and Ablaut). The word normally means both 'die' and 'kill'; in Tsakh. there is different prefixation (q-eḳe-s /dial. q-iḳa-s/ 'die', g-eḳe-s (dial. g-iḳa-s) 'kill'). In Udi 'kill' is a secondary causative formation: bes-busun ( *biʔe-s-busun ). See Бокарев 1961, 63; Гигинейшвили 1977, 103.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: ḳ-
North Caucasian etymology: 24
Meaning: to die
Khinalug form: ḳi
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ƛ̣ǝ-/*ƛ̣a-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 kill 2 die
Abkhaz: a-š́-rá 1
Abaza: š́-ra 1
Adyghe: ƛ̣a-n 2
Kabardian: ƛ̣a-n 2
Comments: PWC *ƛ̣ǝ- 'kill' > PAT *š́ǝ-, PAK *ƛ̣ǝ- (Ad. ƛ̣ǝ-n 'slaughter', Kab. ƛ̣ǝ-n 'kill'); *ƛ̣a- 'die' > PAK *ƛ̣a- id.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ƛij
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: die, corpse
Chinese: 尸 *ƛij corpse
Comments: Cf. Konyak *Li 'die'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: shī
Preclassic Old Chinese: ƛij
Classic Old Chinese: ƛij
Western Han Chinese: l̥jǝj
Eastern Han Chinese: śǝj
Early Postclassic Chinese: śij
Middle Postclassic Chinese: śij
Late Postclassic Chinese: śi
Middle Chinese: śi
English meaning : corpse, representative of the dead
Russian meaning[s]: 1) фигура человека в сидячей позе; идол, образ; 2) мертвое тело, труп; 3) пустое место; синекура; 4) уст. распорядитель; 5) Ши (фамилия)
Comments: Also means 'to set forth (sacrificial dishes)' (Sch.: perhaps s.w. as above).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 44
Four-angle index: 4142
Karlgren code: 0561 a-b
Shijing occurrences: 15.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́l-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: to hit, to kill
Yasin: d-́l-
Hunza: d-́l-
Nagar: d-́l-
Comments: Cf. perhaps also -ltús `grave'?
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,buruet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *hil
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to die; dead 2 to kill 3 to put out, extinguish (lights)
Bizkaian: il 1
Gipuzkoan: il 1, 2
High Navarrese: il 1
Low Navarrese: hil 1, 3
Salazarese: il 1, 2, 3
Lapurdian: hil 1, 2, 3
Baztanese: il 1, 2
Zuberoan: hil 1, 3
Roncalese: il 1, 2, 3
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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