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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŋḗnu
Meaning: to attack, tease
Russian meaning: нападать, издеваться
Turkic: *jān(u)-
Mongolian: *naŋ-si-
Tungus-Manchu: *ŋen-
Japanese: *una-kas-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 18, 81 (with a different Jpn. form, see under *ā́nta), Дыбо 15.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jān(u)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to threaten
Russian meaning: угрожать
Old Turkic: jan- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jan- (MK)
Tatar: jana-, dial. janu-
Uzbek: jan-
Uighur: ǯonu-
Azerbaidzhan: janɨ- (dial.)
Turkmen: jān-ǯa- 'to reproach'
Yakut: sān-
Bashkir: jana-
Balkar: žan-, žaŋ-, ǯanɨ-, zanɨ-
Gagauz: jān-
Comments: VEWT 184, EDT 942, ЭСТЯ 4, 114, Лексика 564. Turk. > WMong. ǯanu-, Kalm. zan- (KW 466). The Turkm. form is related to *jenč- 'crush' in ЭСТЯ 185; the latter has also a variant *janč-, and the Turkm. form may in fact reflect a contamination of these two roots.

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *naŋ-si-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to grumble; to act imprudently, foolishly
Russian meaning: ворчать, жаловаться; действовать глупо, опрометчиво
Written Mongolian: naŋsi- (L 564)
Khalkha: nanši-
Kalmuck: naŋši- 'to talk nonsense, twaddle'
Ordos: naŋši- 'gronder'
Comments: KW 272.

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ŋen-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to attack, fight
Russian meaning: нападать, драться, убивать
Evenki: ŋen-či-, ńeŋ-
Even: ńen-
Literary Manchu: ne-či-
Udighe: ŋeneusi-
Comments: ТМС 1, 653, 671.

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *una-kas-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to urge, force
Russian meaning: заставлять, принуждать
Middle Japanese: ùnàgás-, únákas-
Tokyo: unagás-, ùnagas-
Kyoto: únágás-
Kagoshima: ùnàgàs-
Comments: JLTT 779 (Martin gives also the meaning 'bend the neck', obviously deriving the form from unag- 'hang around the neck' - but, as far as we know, this meaning is not attested anywhere, and the relationship is not evident at all). Accent reconstruction is not clear (both high and low tone variants are attested).

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