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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ĺi̯uga(rV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to knead
Russian meaning: месить, давить
Turkic: *jugur- ( ~ -ɨ-)
Mongolian: *ǯiɣura-
Tungus-Manchu: *lug-
Korean: *nǝ̀hɨ́r-
Japanese: *niàr- ( ~ *nàir-)
Comments: KW 482. Despite Щербак 1997, 196, Mong. is not < Turkic.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jugur- ( ~ -ɨ-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to knead
Russian meaning: месить
Old Turkic: joɣur- (juɣur-) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: juɣur- (MK)
Turkish: jour-
Middle Turkic: juɣur- (MA, Houts.), joɣur- (AH)
Uighur: juɣu(r)-, žuɣu(r)-
Sary-Yughur: juɣur-, joɣur-
Azerbaidzhan: joɣur-
Turkmen: juɣɨ̄r-, juɣur-
Khakassian: čura-
Shor: čūr-
Oyrat: jura-, d́ura-
Halaj: joɣūr-
Chuvash: śǝʷr-
Kirghiz: ǯūr-
Gagauz: jur-
Salar: juɣur-
Comments: VEWT 205, ЭСТЯ 4, 243-244, TMN 4, 173, EDT 906. Turk. > Hung. gyúr- (Gombocz 1912, MNyTeSz 1, 1138).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-gagx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ǯiɣu-ra-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cling to, clutch, squeeze, knead
Russian meaning: хватать, сжимать, месить
Written Mongolian: ǯiɣura- (L 1051)
Middle Mongolian: ǯura- (MA 234)
Khalkha: ʒūra-
Buriat: zūra-
Kalmuck: zūr-
Ordos: ǯūra-
Dongxian: ǯuwa-
Baoan: ǯira-
Dagur: ǯuāra-
Shary-Yoghur: ǯǖra-
Monguor: ʒ́urā- 'pétrir, mélanger avec de l'eau et broyer' (SM 96), ǯurā-
Comments: KW 482, MGCD 459.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *lug-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to whip up, mix 2 gruel-like, watery
Russian meaning: 1 взбивать 2 жидкий, кашеобразный
Evenki: lugdu- 1
Nanai: lujr-lujr bī 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 506, 507.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nǝ̀hɨ́r-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to gnaw, crunch
Russian meaning: грызть, глодать
Modern Korean: nǝ̄l-
Middle Korean: nǝ̀hɨ́r-
Comments: Nam 104, KED 332.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *niàr- ( ~ *náir-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to tan, knead
Russian meaning: дубить, мять
Old Japanese: ner-
Middle Japanese: nèr-
Tokyo: nér-
Kyoto: nèr-
Kagoshima: nèr-
Comments: JLTT 734.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *lVKV
Meaning: to knead
Altaic: *ĺi̯uga(rV)
Uralic: *lOkV
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1414
Proto: *lOkV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to knead (e. g. dough)
German meaning: kneten (z.B. Teig)
Mari (Cheremis): lǝ̑ɣa- (KB) 'kneten; umrühren, umrütteln', luɣe- (B) 'rühren, bereiten (z. B. Brühfutter, Teig)'
Udmurt (Votyak): laj- (S), lajị̑- (G) 'kneten'
Komi (Zyrian): loj- (S), voj- (P) 'kneten (Teig, Lehm)', lo.j- (PO) 'kneten'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,

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