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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ni̯údurgi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fist
Russian meaning: кулак
Turkic: *jɨdruk / *judruk
Mongolian: *nidurga
Tungus-Manchu: *nurga
Japanese: *nínkír-
Comments: EAS 77, KW 280, Владимирцов 187, 369, Poppe 39, Дыбо 317, Лексика 253. Despite Щербак 1997, 125 and Doerfer MT 77, Rozycki 164 borrowing in Mong. from Turk. and TM from Mong. is excluded. TM has a regular loss of *-d- before -r-, with subsequent vowel contraction; Jpn. also reflects a contraction: *ni̯údurgi > *nuj(u)ki- > *ni(n)ki-. It is interesting to note that all subgroups reflex the form with *-rgi; this means that Mong. nidur(a)-, nidu-či- 'to strike with the fist' may be analogical back-formations (or else the most archaic forms reflecting suffixless *ni̯údu).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jɨdruk / *judruk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fist
Russian meaning: кулак
Old Turkic: jɨdruq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: juδruq (MK)
Tatar: jodrɨq
Sary-Yughur: uzruq
Turkmen: judruq (dial.)
Khakassian: nuzurux
Shor: nuzruq
Oyrat: d́udruq
Yakut: suturuq
Tuva: čuduruq
Kirghiz: ǯuduruq
Kazakh: žudɨrɨq
Bashkir: joδroq
Karaim: juduruq, judurux
Karakalpak: žudɨrɨq
Comments: EDT 892, Дыбо 182-183, ЭСТЯ 4, 248-249, Лексика 253. Turk. > Kalm. ǯudr-xǝ 'mit der Faust die Haut abziehen, die Haut und das Fleisch zwängen und so abhäuten' (KW 115). Many modern languages reflect (such as Turkm. jumruq etc.) reflect secondary forms *jumruk or *jumduruk - an obvious result of contamination with *jum- 'round'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *nidurga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fist
Russian meaning: кулак
Written Mongolian: nidurga
Middle Mongolian: nudurxa (HY 46), nudurqa (SH), nūdor- 'to hit with the fist' (LH), nudurqa (MA)
Khalkha: nudargan
Buriat: ńudarga
Kalmuck: nudrɣǝ
Ordos: nudurGa
Baoan: nǝdǝrGa
Shary-Yoghur: nudurGa
Monguor: nudurGa (SM 288), nudǝrGa
Comments: KW 280, MGCD 517.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-bao,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *nurga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fist
Russian meaning: кулак
Evenki: dial. nụrka
Negidal: nojga, nelga
Spoken Manchu: nuǯan (79)
Literary Manchu: nuǯan
Ulcha: ńụGǯa
Oroch: nugga
Solon: norɣa, nuruga
Comments: ТМС 1, 590.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-orc,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *nínkír-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hold in the hand
Russian meaning: хватать, держать в руке
Old Japanese: nigjir-
Middle Japanese: nígír-
Tokyo: nìgir-
Kyoto: nígír-
Kagoshima: nìgìr-
Comments: JLTT 735.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *nüdu-
Meaning: fist
Altaic: *ni̯údurgi
Uralic: *niδe (*nüδe) 'handle'; ? *ńurka 'fist' (FB)
Dravidian: *muṭ-
References: ND 1627 *ńut/duRV[q̇]V 'fist, knuckles' (+ very dub. Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 602
Proto: *niδe (*nüδe)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: handle, shaft
German meaning: Griff, Stiel, Schaft
Finnish: nysi (gen. nyden), lysi (gen. lyden) 'Griff, Handhabe am Sensenstiel (für die rechte Hand), Sensenstiel', nyttö 'Handgriff od. Knauf am Sensenstiel'
Estonian: lüsi (gen. löe) 'Griff, Handhabe am Sensenstiel; Schwertgriff'
Saam (Lapp): nâđđâ -đ- (N) 'handle, shaft', nahta (L) 'Stiel, Griff (eines Messers, einer Axt)', nøtt (Kld.), nødd (Not.) 'Schaft, Stiel, Haft'
Mordovian: ńed́, ńäd́ (E), ńed́ (M) 'Stiel, Schaft'
Khanty (Ostyak): nö̆l (V), nĕt (DN), nȧ̆l (O) 'Schaft, Griff, Stiel'
Mansi (Vogul): näl (TJ KU), nǟl (P), nal (So.) 'Stiel'
Hungarian: nyél (acc. nyelet) 'Griff, Stiel, Haft, Schaft'
Nenets (Yurak): nirʔ (O) 'Messergriff'
Enets (Yen): ńīʔ (ɣɛŋ. ńīδoʔ) 'Messerschaft'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ńir
Selkup: nir (Ta. Ke.) 'Schaft (am Messer, Axt)', ner (Ty.)
Kamass: ńirže 'Schaft'
Janhunen's version: (59) *nüdi
Sammalahti's version: *nüdi
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *muṭ-
Meaning : 1 fist, hammer 2 to hammer
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *muṭ-
Proto-Telugu : *moṭṭ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *muṭ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *muṭ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *muṭ-k-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *muṭ-
Meaning : to knock
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : muṭṭu (muṭṭi-)
Tamil meaning : to dash against, butt, oppose, meet, assault, attack, fight; n. battering, butting
Tamil derivates : muṭṭikai jeweller's small hammer
Malayalam : muṭṭu
Malayalam meaning : knocking, tapping, butting, dunning
Malayalam derivates : muṭṭuka to dash against, knock, tap, butt, strike as a bell or clock; muṭṭikka to press, harass, make to hit, knock, dash, etc.; muṭṭi hammer
Kannada : moṭṭu
Kannada meaning : to rap the head (of another) with the knuckles of the fist; n. a rap with the knuckles of the fist
Kodagu : muṭṭ- (muṭṭi-)
Kodagu meaning : to bump against
Proto-Nilgiri : *muṭ-
Notes : Kannada moṭṭu by analogy with mōdu 'to strike, hit'.
Number in DED : 4932
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *muṭ-
Meaning : to harm
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : muṭ- (muc-) "to meet, harm"
Toda : -mil muṭy "(to quarrel) about (for -mil see 5086)"
Additional forms : Also Kota miṭk small hammer; Toda ? muṭ- (muṭy-) to outstrip
Number in DED : 4932
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *moṭṭ-
Meaning : to give a blow or stroke with the knuckles, esp. on the head, give a blow or knock on one hard body with another that is smaller
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : moṭṭu
Additional forms : Also [1] moṭṭu, [2] moṭṭukāya a knock with the knuckles, a blow on a hard body with one that is smaller
Number in DED : 4932
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *muṭ-
Meaning : fist
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : muṭṭ- "to hammer"
Poya Gadba : muṭa
Additional forms : Also Parji muṭka blow with fist
Number in DED : 4932
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-poya,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *muṭ-
Meaning : fist; hammer
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *muṭ-
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *muṭ-la
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *muṭ-la
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *muṭ-
Meaning : hammer
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Muria Gondi : muṭ
Koya Gondi : muṭiya
Additional forms : Also Gondi_Mu muṭka a blow
Number in DED : 4932
Number in CVOTGD : 2874
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *muṭ-la
Meaning : hammer
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : muṭla
Manda : muṭla
Number in DED : 4932
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *muṭ-la
Meaning : hammer
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Sunkarametta Kuwi : muṭla
Number in DED : 4932
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *muṭ-k-
Meaning : to deal a heavy blow with the fist
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : muṭgaʔānā
Additional forms : Also KUR muṭgā, muṭkā clenched hand or fist, hammering with the fist; muṭkaʔānā to hit or hammer at with the fist.
Number in DED : 4932
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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