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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *mórV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Turkic: *bura (?)
Mongolian: *mori
Tungus-Manchu: *murin
Korean: *mằr
Comments: EAS 79, 141. Somewhat dubious as a PA etymon: the Turkic reflex is questionable, the Tungus forms may be borrowed from Mong., see TMN 1, 507-508, Doerfer MT 25, Rozycki 159 (although the vocalism is not quite satisfactory for a loan); however, the Kor. word is hard to explain as a Mong. borrowing.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *bura (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: soul of a sacrificial animal (horse)
Russian meaning: душа жертвенного животного (коня)
Khakassian: pura 'picture of a male maral on a shaman drum'
Oyrat: pura (dial.) 'sacrificial animal'
Comments: The Oyr. word is usually identified with bura 'camel' < PT *bugra; the absence of vowel length (*būra would be normally expected) is, however, baffling and could indicate a different origin of the Oyr. and Khak. words. Cf. perhaps also Yak. burgunas 'young cow, cow without calves'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *mori
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Written Mongolian: mori(n) (L 543)
Middle Mongolian: morin (HY 9, SH), mori (IM), murin (MA)
Khalkha: moŕ
Buriat: mori(n)
Kalmuck: mörṇ
Ordos: mori(n)
Dongxian: mori
Baoan: more
Dagur: mori, moŕ (Тод. Даг. 155, MD 192)
Shary-Yoghur: mōrǝ
Monguor: mori (SM 241)
Mogol: morin; ZM morin (20-6), KT muren (19-2b)
Comments: KW 267, MGCD 487, TMN 1, 507. Oirat (Kalm.) > Russ. mérin; Bur. > Russ. dial. mórin, see Аникин 391.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *murin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Evenki: murin
Even: mụrъ̣n
Negidal: mojịn
Spoken Manchu: morin (2182)
Literary Manchu: morin
Jurchen: mu-rin
Ulcha: mụrị(n)
Orok: mụrị(n)
Nanai: morị̃
Oroch: muri(n)
Udighe: mui
Solon: morĩ
Comments: ТМС 1, 558-559.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *mằr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horse
Russian meaning: лошадь
Modern Korean: mal
Middle Korean: mằr
Comments: Nam 201, KED 578.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *morV
Meaning: cattle; horse
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *mark(')-
Altaic: *mórV
Dravidian: *mūr- (cf. also SDr *mar-ai 'a k. of deer'
References: ND 1473a *mAr(y)V 'horned animal'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *mark(')-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: horse
Germanic: *márx-a-/*marg-á- m.; *márx-i- c., *márx-iō(n-)/*marg-iṓ(n-) f.
Celtic: Gaul acc. markan (Paus. X.19), Marco-durum ON; Ir marc `Pferd'; Cymr march `Pferd'
Russ. meaning: лошадь (конь/кобыла)
References: WP II 235
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *márxa-z, *margá-z; *márxi-z, *márxiō(n), *margiṓ(n)
Meaning: steed
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: mar-r m. `Pferd'; mer-r f. `Stute'
Norwegian: merr `Stute'
Swedish: märr `Stute'
Danish: mär `Stute'
Old English: mearh, gen. meares m. `horse, steed'; { miere }
English: mare
Old Frisian: OWFris merrie
Old Saxon: meriha, { merge `Stute' }
Middle Dutch: mērie, merrie, marie, marrie
Dutch: merrie f., dial. mērǝ, mēr, merrǝjǝ, mari
Middle Low German: mēre, mērie `Stute'
Old High German: marah- в слож. `Pferd' (9.Jh.); meriha (9.Jh.) `Stute'
Middle High German: marc (-k-), march (-h-), md. mar st. n. `streitross'; mɛrhe wk. f. 'stute, mähre; hure'
German: Mähre
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1222
Root: marko-
English meaning: horse
German meaning: `Pferd'
General comments: nur kelt. und germ.
Material: Ir. marc, cymr. usw. march `Pferd', gall. μάρκαν Akk. Sg., Marcodurum ON;

    ahd. marah, ags. mearh, aisl. marr `Pferd' (nhd. in Mar-schall, -stall), fem. ahd. meriha, ags. mīere, aisl. merr, nhd. Mähre.

References: WP. II 235.
Pages: 700
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *mūr-
Meaning : buffalo; cow
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *mūr-i
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *mūr-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *mūr-i
Meaning : buffalo; ox
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : mūri
Tamil meaning : buffalo; ox, bullock
Tamil derivates : (?) (lex.) mūtiri buffalo
Malayalam : mūri
Malayalam meaning : bullock, ox
Kannada : muri
Kannada meaning : bull, ox
Proto-Nilgiri : *mūr-ĭ
Notes : Irregular vowel shortening in Kannada.
Number in DED : 5041
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *mūr-ĭ
Meaning : untamed (of bullocks)
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : mūry
Number in DED : 5041
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *mūr-
Meaning : cow
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *mūr-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *mūr-
Meaning : cow
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : mūrā
Gommu Gondi : mure
Maria Gondi : mure ponda "milch cow"
Yeotmal Gondi : mura
Maria Gondi (Lind) : murri
Maria Gondi (Smith) : moore
Chindwara Gondi : mūṛā
Adilabad Gondi : mura, (Su.) mūrā
Number in DED : 5041
Number in CVOTGD : 2898
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_ph,gonet-gondi_g,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_y,gonet-gondi_l,gonet-gondi_lu_s,gonet-gondi_ch,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : MVRV
Meaning : an ungulate
Eurasiatic : *morV
Afroasiatic : *mar-
Sino-Caucasian : *xmarnē
Austric : PAA *Cǝ(m)rVŋ 'horse'
Reference : ND 1473a.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *mar-
Meaning: cow, calf
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *mVrVʔ- 'bull'
Egyptian: mr.t 'cow' (Gr.)
Western Chadic: *marir- 'oryx antelope'
Central Chadic: *maray- '(sacrificial) bull' (?)
Low East Cushitic: *mār- 'calf'
High East Cushitic: *mV̄r- 'calf'
Warazi (Dullay): *mār- 'heifer'
Omotic: *marr- 'calf'
Notes: Cf. HSED 1728: Eg.; CCh.: Mafa; Cush.: Arb.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-wrz,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 2477
Proto-Semitic: *mVrVʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: bull
Akkadian: mīru 'young bull' SB [CAD m2 109], 'Zuchtstier' OB, SB [AHw. 658]; mīrtu 'cow' OB [CAD m2 109], 'Zuchtkuh' [AHw. 658]. While the masculine form is known mostly from lexical lists, the fem. parallel is known also from an OB economic text (UCP 10 78 No. 3:14: 1 sūt ana mīrti 'one seah for a cow').
Hebrew: mǝrī(ʔ) 'fatted steer' [KB 635]. Not quite reliable since the Hbr. form is unanimously regar- ded as derived from the verbal root mrʔ 'to be fat' in Hebrais- tic literature (v. [BDB 597], [KB 635]). This derivation, though not impossible, is not without obstactes: the verbal root mrʔ is virtually unattested in Hbr. whereas no Biblical passage expli- citly suggests that m. was a fat (or fatted) animal. Admittedly, the verb mrʔ (Hip.) 'to fatten' and the derived noun hamrāʔā are known form post-Biblical Hebrew ([Ja 842, 356]) as well as from Ugaritic (applied to oxen as well as other houshold animals, [DLU 288]). Interestingly enough, derivation from the widely used verbal root marû is not suggested for the Akk. terms in either [AHw.] or [CAD]. One wonders whether the meaning 'calf' attested for Akk. mūru is somehow connected with mīru.
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-hbr,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: mr.t
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'Kuh' Gr., E-G. II. 106
Notes: Cf. mr, mry 'Kampftier' MR with the sign for bull/cow, ibid.
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *marir-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'Oryx'
Hausa: mariri 'White Oryx' Abr. Hs., 659
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *mar- (?)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: (sacrificial) bull'
Mafa=Matakam: maray [BMaf] 'fête rituelle de taureau; taureau de case sacrifié lors la fête'
Notes: cp. Mada ómrìy (< Mande) 'fẽte'
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mtk,cchet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *mār-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'calf'
Rendille: máar 'male calf', maár 'fem. calf' Pil.-Gal. Eng.-Rend., 318
Arbore: máar 'calves' (coll.) Hayw. Arb., 383
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-rnd,lecet-arb,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *mV̄r-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'calf'
Hadiya (Gudella): moora 'older calf' Huds. HEC., 35
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-had,

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Warazi etymology :

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Proto-Warazi: *mār-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'heifer'
Harso (Werize): maar-akkó
Dihina: maar-akkó
wrzet-prnum,wrzet-meaning,wrzet-hrs,wrzet-dob,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *marr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'calf'
Ometo: Wolayta mārā 'vitello', Dorze mar, Male marro 'calf'
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-ome,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xmarŋē
Meaning: horse
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *farnē
Sino-Tibetan: *mrāH / *mrāŋ
Basque: *behor̄ (*be-hor̄ ?)
Comments and references : WFR 74, LV B10, BCD 262.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *farnē
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: horse, mare
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *xʷVnV
Proto-Tsezian: *χar-am (?)
Proto-Lezghian: *χʷar(a)
Proto-West Caucasian: *xʷara (~ f-)
Notes: The etymology seems satisfactory both phonetically and semantically. The root must have denoted a good horse, mare ('thoroughbred' in WC).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *xʷVnV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: horses (collect.)
Avar: xʷáni
Comments: Exceptional accent paradigm: gen. xʷánu-l, pl. xunú-l. The word is known also in Andian languages (Akhv., And., Bagv. xʷani, Kar. xʷane), but is obviously a loan from Avar.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *χar-am (?)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: foal
Khvarshi: χaram
Comments: Quoted from Khaidakov 1973, thus not very reliable.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-khv,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *χʷar(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mare
Lezghian: χʷar
Tabasaran: χʷar
Agul: χʷar
Rutul: χʷar
Comment: Cf. also Lezg. Khl. χʷar, Tab. Düb. χar, Ag. Bursh. χʷar. Obl. base *χʷara- or *χʷarä- (Lezg. χʷara-, Khl. χura-, Tab. χʷara-, Düb. χara-, Ag. χʷara-). 3d class in Rut.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *xʷara (~ f-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thoroughbred horse
Adyghe: fāra
Kabardian: xʷāra
Comments: PAK *xʷará. Phonetically a perfect match would be PAT *fǝrǝ in Abkh. a-fǝ́r-χac̣a, Abaz. fǝr 'hero', if we assume a metaphoric use of the root in PAT.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mrāH / *mrāŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: horse
Chinese: *mrāʔ horse.
Burmese: mraŋh horse, LB *mhruŋx.
Kachin: gumra2 a horse, a pony; (H) kumraŋ a horse, a pony.
Comments: Haka ray; Kanauri ray; Thebor śaŋ; Chepang saraŋ; Rgyarung nporo, poro, moro. Sh. 121, 135, 143, 410; Ben. 43; Mat. 182.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: mǎ
Preclassic Old Chinese: mrāʔ
Classic Old Chinese: mrā́
Western Han Chinese: mrā́
Eastern Han Chinese: mrǟ́
Early Postclassic Chinese: mạ̄́
Middle Postclassic Chinese: mạ̄́
Late Postclassic Chinese: mạ̄́
Middle Chinese: mạ́
Fanqie: 姥雅
Rhyme class:
English meaning : horse
Russian meaning[s]: 1) лошадь; конь (символ армии); армия; конный, кавалерийский; 2) разбойный, буйный; 3) сокр. марка (немецкая); 4) немедленно, не сходя с места; 5) 21-е число (в телеграммах); 6) Ма (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 怒也. 武也. 象馬頭髦尾四足之形. 凡馬之屬皆從馬.
Comments: For *m- cf. Xiamen, Chaozhou be3, Fuzhou, Jianou ma3.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 187
Four-angle index: 4586
Karlgren code: 0040 a-e
Vietnamese reading: mã
Jianchuan Bai: mɛ1
Dali Bai: mer1
Bijiang Bai: mo1, ma1
Shijing occurrences: 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 9.2_, 31.3_, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 54.1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-fanqie,bigchina-rhyme,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1088
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 假開二上馬明
ZIHUI: 7456 0023
Beijing: ma 2
Jinan: ma 2
Xi'an: ma 2
Taiyuan: ma 2
Hankou: ma 2
Chengdu: ma 2
Yangzhou: mai 2
Suzhou: ma_ 32 (lit.); mo 32
Wenzhou: mo 21
Changsha: ma 2
Shuangfeng: mû 2
Nanchang: ma 2
Meixian: ma 11
Guangzhou: ma 22
Xiamen: ma 2 (lit.); mã 2 (lit.); be 2
Chaozhou: be 21
Fuzhou: ma 2
Shanghai: mo 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: ma 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *behor̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mare
Bizkaian: beor
Gipuzkoan: beor
High Navarrese: beor
Low Navarrese: behor
Salazarese: beor
Lapurdian: behor
Zuberoan: bóhor
Roncalese: beor, (Uztárroz) beur
Comments: Initial *be- is not likely to be a fossilized prefix, since *be=/*bi= does not occur with animate beings (human or animal). Perhaps a dissimilated reduplication (*fefor > *befor, or the like)?
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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