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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`óp`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: be complete, all
Russian meaning: быть полным, целым, весь
Turkic: *köp
Mongolian: *köb-čin
Tungus-Manchu: *xup-
Korean: *kòp-
Japanese: *kúpá-pa-
Comments: Владимирцов 323, АПиПЯЯ 285, Whitman 223. Cf. *kŏp`V: the Kor.-Jpn. reflexes may in fact reflect both roots.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *köp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: many
Russian meaning: много
Old Turkic: köp (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: köp (MK, KB)
Turkish: köp
Tatar: küp
Middle Turkic: köp (Pav. C., MA, Abush.)
Uzbek: kụp
Uighur: köp
Turkmen: köp
Khakassian: köp
Shor: köp
Oyrat: köp
Tuva: kö'p, xöj ( < *köpej)
Tofalar: kö'p
Kirghiz: köp
Kazakh: köp
Noghai: köp
Bashkir: küp
Balkar: köp
Karakalpak: köp
Salar: köp
Kumyk: köp
Comments: VEWT 291, EDT 686-687, ЭСТЯ 5, 107-108.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *köb-čin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: whole, all
Russian meaning: целый, все, весь
Written Mongolian: köbči(n) (L 475)
Middle Mongolian: gubčin (SH)
Khalkha: xövčin
Ordos: gübčin
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-ord,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xup-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 all 2 to gather
Russian meaning: 1 весь, все 2 собирать(ся)
Evenki: upkat 1, upūrē- 2
Negidal: opkal 1
Ulcha: χụpala- 2
Orok: χupala- 2
Nanai: χopala- 2
Oroch: χupala- 2
Udighe: ufal, ufalahi 1
Comments: See ТМС 2, 281; 1, 478. Cf. also Nan. χopã, Ul. χopa(n), Orok χụpa(n) 'group, company' - which may be a merger of the original root with a Manchu loan (cf. Manchu χufan 'company, companionship' < Chin. huǒbàn).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kòp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to double, increase twofold
Russian meaning: удваивать, увеличивать(ся) вдвое
Modern Korean: kop-ha-
Middle Korean: kòp-
Comments: Nam 52, KED 164.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kúpá-pa-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: add
Russian meaning: добавлять
Old Japanese: kupapa-
Middle Japanese: kùfàfá-
Tokyo: kùwae-, kuwaé-
Kyoto: kúwáé-
Kagoshima: kuwaé-
Comments: JLTT 718. Tone reconstruction is controversial: RJ and the Tokyo variant kuwae-rú point to *kùpà-, but all other evidence is in favour of *kúpá-.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳOṗV
Meaning: be full
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *k`óp`i (+ *kop`V)
Kartvelian: Georg. ḳaṗan- 'schwer beladen'
Dravidian: *kop- (confused with *kup- 'heap', see 1391)
References: ND 984 *ḳoʔbE 'to fill, whole' ( + Sem. and Mb.?).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kup-
Meaning : heap; stack
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kup-
Proto-Telugu : *kupp-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kop-/*kup-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kup-
Proto-North Dravidian : *qop-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kup-
Meaning : heap
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kuppam
Tamil meaning : multitude, heap
Tamil derivates : kuppal heap, as of manure, mound, multitude; kuppai heap, mound, sweepings, rubbish, excrement, dung
Malayalam : kuppa
Malayalam meaning : heap of dirt or refuse
Kannada : kuppe, guppe
Kannada meaning : heap, pile, dunghill
Kannada derivates : kuppaḷisu to heap, amass; kuppu to heap up; koppal heap
Kodagu : kuppɨ
Kodagu meaning : a dropping of dung
Tulu : kuppè, guppè, kippè, kompa, kompè
Tulu meaning : heap
Proto-Nilgiri : *kip (??)
Number in DED : 1731
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kip
Meaning : rubbish
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kip "heap of weeds, rubbish"
Toda : kɨp
Additional forms : Also Kota ki(p) pāc rubbish heap near house where people defecate, defecation
Number in DED : 1731
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kupp-
Meaning : heap, pile, collection, assmeblage, (MBE 1978) heap of dirt, dungheap
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kuppa
Additional forms : Also guppu to place in heaps or lots; kuppãgūra abundance; in heaps, abundantly; [1] kopparamu, [2] kopramu increase, rise, swell; kopparincu to increase, rise, swell; kopparinta increasing
Number in DED : 1731
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kop-/*kup-
Meaning : to fill; heap, stack
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami (Setumadhava Rao) : kupp kal- "to gather"
Parji : kuppa "stack, mound"
Ollari Gadba : kop- "to be full, (river) overflows"
Salur Gadba : kuppā "heap"
Kondekor Gadba : kop- "to be full"
Additional forms : Also Parji kopp- to be full; kopip- (kopit-) to fill up; kopa full; koppa small hillock; Ollari kope hill, forest; Gadba_S3 kopup- to fill (tr.); koppen full
Notes : Evidence for two roots here, indeed, confirmed by external data.
Number in DED : 1731
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kol_sr,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-salur,kogaet-s_3,kogaet-addition,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kup-
Meaning : heap, stack
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *kup-
Konda : kupa
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kup-a
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kup-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *kup-
Meaning : heap, stack
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Muria Gondi : kupa
Maria Gondi : guppa
Seoni Gondi : kuppa
Koya Gondi : kuppa
Maria Gondi (Lind) : kupā kiyānā "to gather together"
Adilabad Gondi : kuppa
Additional forms : Also Gondi_L kupāhanā to gather, collect
Number in DED : 1731
Number in CVOTGD : 760
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_s,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-gondi_l,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kupa
Meaning: heap (of grain)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda kumba small conical heap
Number in DED : 1731
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-addition,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kup-a
Meaning : heap
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : kupa "heap, stack"
Manda : kupa
Additional Forms : Also Pengo kupli mound of earth; Manda kupki- to fill
Number in DED : 1731
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-addition,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kup-
Meaning : hillock, mound
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : kupa "hillock"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : kūpa "mound"
Kuwi (Schulze) : kuppu ānai "to overfill"
Sunkarametta Kuwi : kupli "hillock"
Parja Kuwi : kuppa "stack"
Notes : B & E put here also Kui kopa hump, cow's hump, which should instead belong to 1743; and Kuwi_Su gu'u hump of ox, which they put also in 1927 where it should belong indeed. Typical for our friends.
Number in DED : 1731
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *qop-
Meaning : to heap, pile up
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : xoppnā "to form into a pile, heap up"
Malto : qope "to heap, pile up; n. heap, pile"
Additional forms : Also KUR xoprnā to be heaped up; xopOrxolā, (Bleses also) xoporkā abundant, swarming; MLT qopre to come together, assemble.
Number in DED : 1731
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVPV
Meaning : be full, complete
Eurasiatic : *ḳOṗV
Afroasiatic : Sem.?
Sino-Caucasian : *gwǝ̄ṗV
Austric : PAA *gap, Thai *kap 'join', PAN *raŋkeb, *raŋkep 'unite'
Reference : МССНЯ 346; ND 984.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *gwǝ̄ṗV
Meaning: group, unite
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *gwǝ̄ṗV
Sino-Tibetan: *kV̄p
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *gwǝ̄ṗV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: group, heap
Proto-Nakh: *gub (~ -ū-)
Proto-Tsezian: *guṗ
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳaṗal
Proto-West Caucasian: *k:ʷǝpǝ
Notes: Except secondary assimilations (typical for roots with two stops; PN *gub < *guṗ; PL *ḳaṗ-al < *k:aṗ-al) correspondences are quite regular. The comparison is quite satisfactory both phonetically and semantically.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *gub (~ -ū-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hill, barrow 2 island
Chechen: gū 1
Ingush: guw 1
Batsbi: gub 2 (Schiefner)
Comments: 6th class in Chech. and Ing. The Bacb. form is quoted from Schiefner; Kadagidze has only Bacb. gub 'pool' which is obviously borrowed from Georg. gube 'pool, pond'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *guṗ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hill 2 heap
Tsezi: guṗ 1
Khvarshi: gub (Radzhibov)
Bezhta: ḳuṗijo 2 (Khosh.)
Comments: PTsKh *guṗ (with dissimilation in Khvarshi). The Bezht. form has a frequent suffix -ijo; ḳ- < g- through assimilation.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-khv,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ḳaṗal
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 group, heap, crowd 2 grove 3 small sheep-flock
Lezghian: ḳaṗal 1
Tabasaran: ḳaṗal 2
Kryz: ḳäbäl 3
Budukh: ḳǝṗǝl 3
Comment: In Bud. ḳǝṗǝl is the MSU recording; Meilanova has ḳapal (either another variant or a misspelling). 3d class in Kryz. (the Kryz. word also means 'cloud'), 4th class in Bud.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *k:ʷǝpǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: group
Abkhaz: a-gʷǝ́p
Abaza: gʷǝp
Adyghe: kʷǝp
Kabardian: gʷǝp
Comments: PAT *gʷǝpǝ; PATK *k:ʷǝ́pǝ. Ad. > Ub. kʷǝp (in case of direct inheritance Ub. would have gʷ-).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kV̄p
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: join, unite
Chinese: *gǝ̄p join, unite.
Tibetan: kob all.
Burmese: khap- all together (Luce).
Kachin: kup3 be entire, complete, perfect, (H) kop completely.
Lushai: kip every, all.
Lepcha: kóp 1 to be in concord, to harmonize, to coincide, to be in unison one with another, to agree together, to be of one mind, to fraternize; 2 to be joined together as man and wife; kop to join, to fasten as by placing a piece on each side of, to fix together
Comments: Luce 36. Cf. *krV̄p.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: hé
Preclassic Old Chinese: gǝ̄p
Classic Old Chinese: gǝ̄p
Western Han Chinese: gǝ̄p
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝ̄p
Early Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄p
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄p
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄p
Middle Chinese: ɣʌp
English meaning : be together, joined, harmonious; to put together, match
Comments: Also read *kǝ̄p, MC kʌp (FQ 古沓), Pek. gé id. The meaning 'to close' (as in hé-kou 合口 'close the mouth') is also archaic and probably reflected in Viet. colloquial cụp (the literary Sino-Viet. reading is họ'p). Cf. other Viet. colloquial readings (possibly from the same source - but cf. also PAA *gap 'join' which may be ultimately related): góp 'to collect, contribute, concentrate)' (but for the latter cf. also 給 *kǝp q.v.), hạp 'to suit, to agree', họp 'to meet, gather, assemble'. For OC *g- cf. Xiamen kaʔ8.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 0675 a-d
Go-on: gofu
Kan-on: kafu
Japanese reading: gō;au;awasu;awaseru
Vietnamese reading: cụp
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 246
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 咸開一入合匣
ZIHUI: 0678 0206
Beijing: xô 12
Jinan: xǝ 12
Xi'an: xuo 12
Taiyuan: xaʔ 41; xǝʔ 41
Hankou: xo 12
Chengdu: xo 12
Yangzhou: xǝʔ 4
Suzhou: ɦôʔ 42
Wenzhou: ɦö 42
Changsha: xo 4
Shuangfeng: xuɛ 12
Nanchang: hɔt 41
Meixian: hap 42
Guangzhou: hap 42
Xiamen: hap 42 (lit.); kap 41; kaʔ 41
Chaozhou: haʔ 42
Fuzhou: xaʔ 42
Shanghai: ɦôʔ 42
Zhongyuan yinyun: xo 41
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kVp
Meaning: unite, join
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *gap
Austroasiatic meaning: join
Proto-Austronesian: *raŋkeb, *raŋkep
Austronesian meaning: unite
Proto-Thai: kap to join together CK
Notes: Cf. *KVp 'put together'
References: Peiros 1989.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,austr-notes,austr-bibl,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *gap
Meaning: join
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: kap to join together CK
Khmer: gɔp
Proto-Monic: M pagap, bgap
Proto-Palaungic: Pr kap I?
Proto-Khmu: LKM gap
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kmr,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: gɔp
Meaning: to throw smth at someone; to join together, to associate; faggot, bundle of sticks or straw used as a torch, twist of straw; large wooden mallet
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,

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