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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`òlmV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shadow, cloud
Russian meaning: тень, облако
Turkic: *köl-
Tungus-Manchu: *KVlm-
Korean: *kúrùm
Japanese: *kùmua-N
Comments: Martin 228, АПиПЯЯ 98, 274. One should also note MKor. kɨ́mɨ́- 'to become dim, hide (of moon etc.)', possibly < *kúrmɨ́- = OJ kumor- id. Cf. also notes to *gḕĺa.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *köl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 shadow 2 to shadow
Russian meaning: 1 тень 2 давать тень, затенять
Old Turkic: kölü- (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: kölik (MK) 1
Turkish: gölge, kölge (dial.)
Tatar: külɛgɛ 1
Middle Turkic: kölege (Abush.)
Uzbek: kụlkɛ, kụlɛkɛ 1
Uighur: kölɛŋgɛ, köligɛ 1
Azerbaidzhan: kölgä 1
Turkmen: kölge 1
Khakassian: köle- 2, kölek 1
Oyrat: kölö- 2, kölöŋö 2
Yakut: külük 1
Dolgan: külük 1
Tuva: xölege 1
Tofalar: xölege 1
Kirghiz: kölökö 1
Noghai: köletke 1
Bashkir: külɛgɛ 1
Gagauz: gölge 1
Karakalpak: köleŋke 1
Comments: VEWT 288-289, 294, EDT 716-718, ЭСТЯ 5, 96-97, 128, Stachowski 164. Should be distinguished from *Köĺ- 'to screen' (v. sub *gḕĺa).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *KVlm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: shadow
Russian meaning: тень
Spoken Manchu: xelǝmǝn (2047)
Literary Manchu: xelme
Comments: ТМС 1, 481. Attested only in Manchu (thus the reconstruction is not quite secure), but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kúrùm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cloud
Russian meaning: облако
Modern Korean: kurɨm
Middle Korean: kúrùm
Comments: Nam 59, KED 199.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùmua
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cloud
Russian meaning: облако
Old Japanese: kumwo
Middle Japanese: kùmò
Tokyo: kúmo
Kyoto: kúmò
Kagoshima: kumó
Nase: k`ùmú
Shuri: kúmú
Hateruma: fu_̀m_óN
Yonakuni: m̀mù
Comments: JLTT 463. Tokyo points to a variant *kùmuá-N, Kyoto and RJ - to *kùmuà-N.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVĺV
Meaning: dark
Indo-European: *kāl- ( + *kal- / -e- 2801)
Altaic: *k`òĺi(-mV)
Dravidian: *kàl-
Eskimo-Aleut: *qilaɣ (-ɫuɣ)
References: ND 1025 *ḲalV(-mV) 'spot, stain; be spotty' (IE+Drav + incorr. Alt.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kāl-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: dark, black
Old Indian: kāla- `black, dark', kālī f. `black colour, ink or blacking'
Old Greek: k[ǟ]lás = nephélē ánüdros kaì kheimerinǟ̀ hēmérǟ Hsch., kelai̯nó- `schwarz, dunkel, finster'; kēlḗnē = mélaina (Hsch.)
Latin: cālīgō, -inis f. `dunkler Nebel, Rauch, Finsternis, Trübung der Augen, Schwindel'
Russ. meaning: темный, черный
References: WH
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kàl-
Meaning : mark, scar
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kàl-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kàl-
Meaning : mark, scar
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malayalam : kala
Malayalam meaning : mark as of small-pox, scar, mole
Kannada : kale, kali
Kannada meaning : scar of an old wound, mark of small-pox, stain of mud, oil, etc.
Kodagu : kale
Kodagu meaning : scar, white spot on nail
Tulu : kalè
Tulu meaning : scar, mark, blemish, stain
Number in DED : 1313
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *qilaɣ (-ɫuɣ)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: sky, cloud
Russian meaning: небо, облако
Proto-Yupik: *qilaɣ (-ɫuɣ)
Proto-Inupik: *qilaɣ (-luɣ)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 305
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *qilaɣ (-ɫuɣ)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: sky 1, cloud 2
Russian Meaning: небо 1, облако 2
Sirenik: qílǝx 1, qiláxɫǝx 'cloud, overcast'
Chaplino: qilák (ɣǝt), kil/ɫak* 1, qiláxɫuk (ɣǝt), kɨláxɫuk* 2
Naukan: qílak 1, qílin 'ceiling', qiláxɫuk 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: qilak 1
Koniag (AAY): qilaxɫuk 2
Chugach (Birket-Smith): qiläk 1
Central Alaskan Yupik: qilak 1
Nunivak (Peripheral): qilak* 1, qilaxɫux 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 304
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-koni,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *qịlạɣ (-luɣ)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: sky 1, cloud 2, roof, ceiling 3
Russian meaning: небо 1, облако 2, крыша, потолок 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: qilak 1, 2, 3, qilaɣluk 2
SPI Dialects: Imaq qílak 1, 2, W qilẹq*, qiląq* 1, qila* (āk, qiʎʎąt) 3, KI qilẹq* 1, qila* 3
North Alaskan Inupik: qiĺak 1, 3, qilaɣluk- 'to be cloudy'
NAI Dialects: B qiĺak* 1, qiĺąk* 3, Ingl qilak* 1
Western Canadian Inupik: qilak 1, 3
WCI Dialects: Cor, M qilak* 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: qilak 1, qilaŋŋua(q)- 'to stand out in silhouette against the sky'
Greenlandic Inupik: qilak (qilak*) 1, qilâq* 'roof, palate' [Jen.], qilaŋŋūʁ- 'to stand out in silhouette against the sky'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 304
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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