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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ēro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to shout, speak
Russian meaning: кричать, говорить
Turkic: *Kạrga-
Mongolian: *kara/ija-
Tungus-Manchu: *xērī-
Japanese: *kátár-
Comments: Владимирцов 201. Despite Щербак 1997, 134, the Mong. form is hardly borrowed from Turkic. Jpn. has an irregular high tone. On a possible Korean parallel see under *k`i̯ăli.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kạrga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to swear, curse
Russian meaning: ругать, проклинать
Old Turkic: qarɣan- (recipr.) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɣa-, qɨrɣa- (MK, KB)
Tatar: qarɣa-
Middle Turkic: qarɣa- (Qutb, Abush.)
Uzbek: qɛrɣɛ-
Uighur: qa(r)ɣa-
Turkmen: GarGa-
Khakassian: xarɣa-
Oyrat: qarɣa-
Chuvash: xъrrъn (Adv.) 'angrily'
Yakut: kɨrā-
Dolgan: kɨrā-
Tuva: qarɣa-
Tofalar: qarɣa-
Kirghiz: qarɣa-
Kazakh: qarɣa-
Noghai: qarɣa-
Bashkir: qarɣa-
Karakalpak: qarɣa-
Kumyk: qarɣa-
Comments: EDT 655, VEWT 237, ЭСТЯ 5, 304-305, Stachowski 169.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kara/ija-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to curse
Russian meaning: ругать
Written Mongolian: qarija- (L 938), qaraɣa-
Khalkha: xarā-
Buriat: xarā-
Kalmuck: xarā- (КРС)
Ordos: xarā-
Dongxian: qara-
Baoan: χǝra-
Dagur: xarā-, karā- (Тод. Даг. 174); harā- (MD 156)
Monguor: xarā- (SM 159)
Comments: MGCD 330.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xērī-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shout, call
Russian meaning: кричать, звать
Evenki: ērī-
Even: ēri-
Negidal: ējī-
Jurchen: xeRse-be 'language' (762)
Ulcha: xēr-si-
Nanai: xēr-si-
Solon: ērī-
Comments: ТМС 2, 464.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kátár-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to speak, tell
Russian meaning: говорить, рассказывать
Old Japanese: katar-
Middle Japanese: kátár-
Tokyo: kàtar-
Kyoto: kátár-
Kagoshima: katár-
Comments: JLTT 705.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳErV
Meaning: to call
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kar[a]-, *kr[ā]-
Altaic: *k`ēro
Uralic: *kerä
Kartvelian: *ḳir- / *ḳil- (?)
Dravidian: *kēr- (or *kīr_-)
References: МССНЯ 342, ОСНЯ 1, 323-324; ND 1150 *ḳeriʔA 'to cry, shout, call'
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kar[a]-, *kr[ā]-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to shout
Old Indian: carkarti, aor. ákārīt `to mention, praise, speak highly of'; carkr̥tí- f. `praising, glory', karkarí-, karkarī́- f. `a k. of lute', kīrtí- f. `mention, speech, report'; kārú- m. `one who sings or praises, poet'
Old Greek: karkái̯rō `erdröhnen ?' (Hom., Hsch.); kǟ́rǖk-s m. `Herold, Bote; Trompetenschnecke'
Baltic: *kerd- (-ja-) vb. tr., *kird-ī̂- vb., *kar̃d-a- c., *kard-u- adj.
Germanic: *xar-ē- vb., *xar-ō- vb., *xar-m-ia- vb.; *xrṓ-ɵ-īg-a- adj., *xrṓɵ-ia- m., *xrṓ-ɵr-a- m., *xrō-m-a- m.
Latin: carmen, -minis n. `Lied, Rezitation' (?)
Russ. meaning: кричать
References: WP I 353
Comments: Lat may be < *kanǝmen-.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kerd- (-ja-) vb. tr., *kird-ī̂- vb., *kar̃d-a- c., *kard-u- adj.
Meaning: shout
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: ap-kerdžiu 'ich verjünde',
Lithuanian: kar̃da-s 'Widerhall, Echo', kardù- 'tönend, widerhallend', kardìnti-s 'sich bemerkbar machen, von sich hören lassen'
Old Prussian: kirdīt 'hören'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xarēn-, *xarōn- vb., *xarmian- vb.; *xrṓɵīga-, *xrṓɵia-z, *xrṓɵra-z, *xrōma-z
Meaning: commend, praise
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *hrōɵīg-s (a) `triumphant'
Old Norse: herma wk. `melden, erzählen; nachahmen'; hrōδ-r m. `Ruhm; Lobgedicht'; hrōsa wk. `loben'
Norwegian: herma vb.; rosa vb.
Old Swedish: rosa vb.
Swedish: härma vb.
Danish: herme `nachahmen'; rose vb.
Old English: hyrian `eifern, nachahmen'; hrōɵor m. `Trost, Freude', hrȫɵ `Ruhm', hrȫmig
East Frisian: nā-hiri `nachahmen'
Old Saxon: hrōm m.; hrōth `Ruhm', Hrōthsvīth PN
Middle Dutch: roem m., n. `roem, heerlijkheid, eer'
Dutch: roem m.
Middle Low German: rōm
Old High German: (h)ruod- in Rüdiger, Rudolf, Ruprecht; (h)ruom (8.Jh.) `Lob, Ehre, Prahlerei'; harēn `rufen', ant-harōn `nachahmen'
Middle High German: ruom, ruon st. m. 'lob, lobpreisund, ruhm, ehre'
German: Ruhm m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-eastfris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 846
Root: kar-2, karǝ-
English meaning: to praise, glorify
German meaning: `laut preisen, rühmen'
General comments: auch (noch) allgemeinere Schallwurzel wie viele andere, die Verbindung von k und r enthaltende Wurzeln
Derivatives: kāru- `Sänger'
Material: Ai. carkarti `erwähnt rühmend' (Aor. ákārīt), carkr̥tí- `Ruhm, Preis', karkarí-, karkarī́ `eineArt Laute', kīrtí- f. `Ruhm, Kunde' (danach mit ī auch kīrí-, kīrín- `Sänger'); kārú- `Sänger, Dichter' (: κήρυξ);

    gr. καρκαίρω `erdröhne', κήρῡξ, dor. κά̄ρῡξ `Herold';

    anord. herma (*harmjan) `berichten, melden', hrōðr m. `Ruhm, Lob', ags. hrōðor m. `Freude', hrēð (*hrōþi-) `Ruhm', ahd. (h)rōd-, (h)ruod- ds. (in EN), got. hrōþeigs `ruhmreich', anord. hrōsa `rühmen' (*hrōþ-s-ōn); ahd. (h)ruom, as. hrōm `Ruhm, Lob, Ehre', dazu ags. brēme `berühmt' (*bihrōmi-);

    vielleicht als b-Erweiterung: got. hrōps `Geschrei', ahd. ruof `Ruf', as. ags. hrōpan, ahd. (h)ruofan `rufen, schreien', ahd. (h)ruoft, mhd. gerüefte, geruofte n. `Ruf, Schrei', mnd. ruchte, rochte n. `Ruf, Schrei, Gerücht', nhd. (aus dem Ndd.) Gerücht;

    lit. kar̃das `Echo', alit. ap-kerdžiu `ich verkünde', apr. kirdīt `hören'.

References: WP. I 353 f.
Pages: 530-531
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 291
Proto: *kerä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to ask
German meaning: bitten
Finnish: kerää- 'sammeln', kerjää- 'betteln' ( > Saam. N gærjedi- 'beg, ask alms', L kierjēti- 'betteln')
Estonian: kerja- 'betteln'
Udmurt (Votyak): kur- (S) 'bitten, flehen', kural- 'freien, Freiwerber sein', kurị̑- (G) 'bitten, verlangen'
Komi (Zyrian): kor- (S P) 'bitten, betteln; rufen, einladen', koraś-, kora.ś- (SP P) 'freien, werben', ko.r- (PO) 'bitten, einladen, fordern'
Hungarian: kér- 'bitten, verlangen; freien'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-ugr,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳir- / *ḳil-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: кричать
English meaning: to shout
Georgian: ḳiw-
Megrel: rḳi-
Svan: ḳīl-
Laz: m-ḳj-ap-u
Laz meaning (Rus.): шакал; ḳir-, ḳij- 'кричать'
Laz meaning (Eng.): jackal; ḳir-, ḳij- 'to shout'
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 112 (*ḳi-), EWK 201-202 (*ḳiw-). См. разбор в ОСНЯ 1, 324 (груз. ḳiw- под влиянием q̇iw- q.v.). Основа (ibid.) сопоставляется с урал. *kerjä 'просить', драв. *kīr_- 'кричать, звать', ТМ *xēri- 'звать' < ностр. *ḳerjä (ПИЕ *ker- 'кричать' считается нерегулярным).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kēr-
Meaning : to shout; to crow
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Telugu : *kēr-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kēr-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ker-
Proto-North Dravidian : *qer-q-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kēr-
Meaning : to cry out, be jubilant
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kēru
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : ceralu "to be in great glee, be jubilant; n. jubilation"
Additional forms : Also keralu to cry out from alarm
Number in DED : 1960
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kēr-
Meaning : to shout
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : kēri "noise, shout"
Naikri : kerkiṛ- (kerkiṭṭ-)
Number in DED : 1960
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ker-
Meaning : to crow
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : kere- (-t-)
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *Ker-ŋ-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kere- (-t-)
Meaning: (cock) to crow
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 1960
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *Ker-ŋ-
Meaning : to groan, moan; n. groaning, moaning
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : gernga (gerngi-), grenga (grengi-)
Additional forms : Also Kui grēnja (grēnji-) to groan, moan, gasp with pain; n. groaning, moaning
Notes : The initial consonant is *k-, as shown by external data, voiced before a combination of resonants.
Number in DED : 1960
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *qer-q-
Meaning : to sound
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malto : qerg̣e
Number in DED : 1960
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : to call
Eurasiatic : *ḳErV
Afroasiatic : *ḳVrVʔ- (Sem., Berb.)
Sino-Caucasian : *qwVrV́ (or *xqV́rV 'song')
Reference : МССНЯ 342.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *fiwaḥ-
Meaning: blow, smell, breathe
Semitic: *pVwVḥ- ~ *pVḥḥ- 'breathe, blow, spread (smell)'
Western Chadic: *fayVḥ- 'blow' 1, 'smell (intrans.)' 2
Central Chadic: *ʔi-fiyaH- 'smell (intrans.)'
East Chadic: *pwaH- < *pVwaH- 'blow'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *fi/ahw- 'to blow' 1, 'breathe' 2, 'take rest' 3, 'breath, soul' 4
South Cushitic: *faḥ- 'blow'
Notes: Cf. *fiwaḫ- 'blow, breathe'; *fu(h/wV)ḳ- 'breathe (heavily)'. Cf. HSED 813, 814.
afaset-meaning,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-agw,afaset-scu,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1169
Proto-Semitic: *pVwVḥ- ~ *pVḥḥ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: to breath, blow, spread (smell)
Hebrew: pwḥ 'to breathe; wheeze against' [KB 916-17], ypḥ (hitp) 'to gasp for breath, groan' [ibid. 424]; PB paḥ 'blowing', pǝḥī 'blowing out, expiration' [Ja 1151]
Judaic Aramaic: pwḥ 'to blow, evaporate' [Ja 1140].

    Cf. pǝḥē, pǝḥā 'to open mouth' [ibid. 1152]

Syrian Aramaic: pāḥ 'flavit, spiravit; respiravit, quievit; fragravit (odor)' [Brock 559]
Arabic: fḥḥ 'siffler (se dit des serpents); siffler en dormant (se dit d'un homme)' [BK 2 547]; fwḥ 'répandre parfum (se dit d'un arôme)', II 'exhaler (une odeur)' [ibid. 644]
Tigre: fǝḥot 'smell, stench' [LH 654]
Notes: Since in ARB, the only language in this entry distinguishing between ḥ and ḫ, examples with both are represented, it is impossible to chose between these two consonants in the reconstructed form.

    Note various ways of triconsonantizing (insertion of medial -w-, doubling of the second radical, etc.).

    [KB 916-7]: HBR, ARM, ARB (fwḥ, fyḥ, fwh_, fh_h_); [Brock 559]: SYR, HBR, ARB (fwh_)

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-hbr,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-ara,semet-tgr,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *fayVḥ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow' 1, 'smell (intrans.)' 2
Angas: fwēp 2
Pero: púyò 1 [FrP]
Warji: fày- 1 [SkNb]
Kariya: fày- 1 [SkNb]
Miya: fay- 1 [SkNb]
Mburku: fày- 1 [SkNb]
Bokos: fuʔ 1 [JgR]
Sha: fyáḥ 1 [JgR]
Daffo-Butura: fũʔ 1 [JgR]
Ngizim: fiyǝ 1 [ShN]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-ang,wchet-per,wchet-wrj,wchet-kry,wchet-miy,wchet-mbu,wchet-bks,wchet-sha,wchet-dfb,wchet-ngz,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ʔi-fiyaH-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'smell (intrans.)'
Logone: ʔìfíyàʔà [By]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-log,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *PuH-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow'
Tumak: pò [Cp]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-tum,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *fi/ahw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow' 1, 'breathe' 2, 'take rest' 3, 'breath, soul' 4
Khamir: faw 3, faû-t 2 Rein
Qwara: fīhŭ, fīû 1, 3 Rein
Qemant: fīw 2, fiwā 4 Con Ros
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-xmr,agwet-kwr,agwet-kem,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *faḥ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow'
Alagwa (Wasi): faḥ-
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-alg,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *qwVrV́ (?)
Meaning: to ask
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *HreqwĂ(r)
Yenisseian: *t-VχV
Burushaski: *-ɣárVs-
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HreqwĂ(r)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ask
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q(ʷ)ar- ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔerχʷa
Notes: An Av.-And.-Lezg. isogloss (the root should be distinguished from *=īχwA 'to ask, search').
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *q(ʷ)ar- ( ~ -o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ask, pray
Avar: har-
Akhvakh: qor-
Chamalal: χa-d-
Tindi: χē-
Karata: χā-
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Anch. χar-, Tok. hal- 'to ask', Tind. (with reduplication) χuχā- 'to ask strongly', χaχ- 'to beg'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔerχʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to ask 2 to read
Tabasaran: h-erχ- 1
Agul: ruχ- 2
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Bursh. ruχa- 'to read' (a secondary merger with ruχa- 'to wail, howl' < PL *raχa-), harχʷa- 'to ask', Tp. (Shaum.) χur- 'to read'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *t-VχV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ask
Ket: ti-v-íj (t...ij)
Yug: ti-bet́, t...iʔ
Kottish: thax, thag 'asking', thōjaŋ 'I ask', praet. thōlajaŋ
Comments: Werner 2, 266 <*th-eg / *eg>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-ɣarVs-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: to ask
Yasin: -ɣáres-
Hunza: -ɣárus-
Nagar: -ɣárus-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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