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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ā̀re
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: edge
Russian meaning: край
Turkic: *Kɨr
Mongolian: *kira
Tungus-Manchu: *xāri-
Comments: EAS 144, KW 232, Poppe 114, Дыбо 12, Лексика 96, TMN 3, 568, ЭСТЯ 6, 226. A Western isogloss; in Turkic contaminating with the reflex of *giru q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 isolated mountain 2 mountain top, mountain ridge 3 steppe, desert, level ground 4 edge
Russian meaning: 1 отдельно стоящая гора 2 вершина горы, гребень горы, возвышенность 3 степь, пустыня, равнина 4 край
Karakhanid: qɨr 1 (MK, KB), 'rising ground' (IM,14 c.)
Turkish: kɨr 3
Tatar: qɨr 3, 4
Middle Turkic: qɨr (Sangl.), qir (Pav. C.) 2, 3
Uzbek: qir 2, 3, 4
Uighur: qir 3, 4
Turkmen: Gɨr 3
Khakassian: xɨr 2, 'roof'
Shor: qɨr
Oyrat: qɨr 2, 3, 4
Chuvash: xir 3
Yakut: kɨrtas 2; kɨrdal 'hill'
Dolgan: kɨrdal 'hill'
Kirghiz: qɨr 2, 3
Kazakh: qɨr 2, 4
Noghai: qɨr 3
Bashkir: qɨr 3, 4
Balkar: qɨr 3
Gagauz: qɨr 3
Karaim: qɨr 3
Karakalpak: qɨr 2, 4
Kumyk: qɨr 3
Comments: EDT 641, VEWT 265, Лексика 95-96, ЭСТЯ 6, 225, Stachowski 169. Derived is PT *Kɨran 'edge, ridge' (ЭСТЯ 6, 226); but note that modern forms like Turkm. Gɨra, Tuva qɨra etc. are borrowed < Mong. kira.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kira
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: edge, ridge
Russian meaning: край, горный хребет
Written Mongolian: kira (L 470)
Khalkha: x́ar
Buriat: x́ara 'гребень горы'
Kalmuck: kirǝ
Ordos: kirā
Dagur: χarGaG, (Тод. Даг. 150) kira 'mound'
Monguor: ćirē 'bord, limite' (SM 458)
Comments: KW 232, MGCD 354. Mong. > Evk. kira etc. (ТМС 1, 397), see Doerfer MT 46.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xāri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: border, hem
Russian meaning: кайма, обшивка
Ulcha: χārịča
Nanai: χāri-, χāriča
Comments: ТМС 1, 371.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳarV
Meaning: rock, steep bank
Indo-European: *kar-
Altaic: *k`ā̀re
Kartvelian: *ḳarḳar-
Dravidian: *kar- (also *kar- 'sharp' 724)
References: ОСНЯ 1, 340-341; ND 1149 *ḳar(V)ʔV 'pointed, sharp, peak, rock', 1161 *ḲarXV 'bank, edge' ( + Eg.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kar- (kh-)
Meaning: stone, thorn; hard, rough
Tokharian: A tsär `rauh'
Old Indian: khára- `hard, harsh, rough, sharp'
Other Iranian: NPers xār, xārā 'Fels, Dorn'
Armenian: khar `Stein, Fels'
Old Greek: krănăó- 'rocky, rugged (in Hom. always in Ithaka); hard; stinging'; kárkharo- `beissend, bissig, scharf, rauh'
Celtic: OIr carrac f., OCymr carrec `Fels, Stein'
Russ. meaning: камень (острый), колючка; острый, шероховатый
References: WP I 355
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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 847
Root: kar-3, redupl. karkar-
English meaning: hard
German meaning: u. dgl. `hart'
Material: Ai. karkara- `rauh, hart' = gr. κάρκαροι τραχει̃ς Hes., ai. karkaśa- `rauh, hart' (auch karaka- m., `Hagel'?); vermutlich gr. κρανα[]ός `hart, rauh, felsig'.

    Dazu wohl die Wörter für `Krebs': ai. karkaṭa- m. `Krebs' (karkin- `Krebs als Sternbild', Lw. aus gr. καρκίνος), karka-ḥ m. `Krabbe';

    gr. καρκίνος ds., lat. cancer, -crī ds. (dissim. aus *carcro-, vielleicht schon idg., vgl. ai. kaŋkaṭa- m. `Panzer' aus *kaŋkr̥ta-);

    daß aksl. rakъ `Krebs' aus *krakъ dissim. sei, ist möglich; die Ähnlichkeit mit norw. (usw.) ræke `cапcег squilla, Garnele' setzt Entlehnung des norw. Wortes voraus;

    ferner Worte für harte Schale, Nuß: gr. κάρυον `Nuß', καρύα f. `Nußbaum'; lat. carīna f. `Nußschale, Schiffskiel, Schiff' (vielleicht aus dem Gr. nach Keller Volkset. 279, in welchem Falle καρύινος die Quelle ist); cymr. ceri (*carīso-) `Obstkern'.

    Mit t-Suffixen: got. hardus `hart, streng', anord. harðr `hart', ags. heard `hart, stark, tapfer', as. hard, ahd. hart, herti `hart, fest, schwer', Adv. anord. harða, ags. hearde, ahd. harto, mnd. harde `sehr, besonders' (vgl. gr. κάρτα), urgerm. *harðú- aus idg. *kar-tú-; auf Grund einer idg. Erweiterung *kre-t-, *kr̥t- äol. (Gramm.) κρέτος, woneben mit dem Vokalismus des Adj. att. κράτος, ep. ion. κάρτος `Stärke, Kraft', hom. κρατύς `stark' Komparat. ion. κρέσσων, att.κρείττων, Superl. κράτιστος, ep. κάρτιστος, Adv. κάρτα `stark', κρατερός, καρτερός `stark, kräftig, fest, heftig' (usw.); fern bleibt ai. krátu-, av. xratuš `geistige Kraft'.

    Ai. kaṭhiná-, káṭhora- `hart, fest, steif' kann auch mit idg. l zu cymr. caled, mir. calad `hart', gall. -caletos gehören (s. kal- `hart').

    Wegen der Existenz eines weitverbreiteten iber.-mediterr. *carra `Stein, Steinhaufe' (v. Wartburg FEW. s. v.) ist die Zugehörigkeit folgender Worte zweifelhaft, die teils hierher oder zu (s)ker- `schneiden' gehören, teils nichtidg. Herkunft sein können:

    air. carrac f. (nir. carraig) `Felsen, Klippe' und crec f. ds., Gen. craice, creice, mir. auch Nom. craic (nir. craig) f. ds., Gen. creca, stammen alle aus dem Brit., ebenso mir. crach `rauh' (= schorfig); zu acymr. carrecc, cymr. carreg f. `Stein, Felsen' (*karrikā), bret. karreg, corn. carrek ds., vgl. cymr. carrog `Bach' (*karrākā), eig. `Steinbach' = mir. carrach `schorfig' und gallo-rom. *cracos `Stein' (v. Wartburg FEW. s. v), acymr. creik, cymr. craig f. (*krakī) `Felsen', bret. krag `Sandstein', cymr. crach `Schorf' = bret. (Vannes) krah `kleiner Hügel, Spitze' (*krak-, *krakk-, vielleicht durch Metathese aus *kar-k-) usw. Grundformen sind voridg.*karr- oder idg. *(s)kr̥-s- (ergäbe kelt. carr-), bzw. *kar-k-; ebenso zweidentig ital.-venezian. (ven.) scaranto, caranto `steiniger Bergbach' und ven. ON Scarantia > Scharnitz (Tirol), Carantania `Kärnten', usw.;

    desgleichen germ. *har(u)gaz `Steinhaufen, Opferstätte' in anord. hǫrgr `Steinhaufen', ags. hearg m. `heidnischer Tempel', ahd. harg `Hain, Tempel' (finn. Lw. karko `Holzstoß, Stapel', harkko `Klumpen, Haufen'), vielleicht auch zu air. cymr. bret. corn `Steinhügel, Steingrab', und ahd. hart `Bergwald', ags. harað, - ds.; kaum hierher als `Waldbewohner' der altgerm. VN Χαρου̃δες, Harudes, ags. Hæreðas, aisl. Hǫrdar; eher zu air. caur, cur `Held' (*karut-s).

References: WP. I 30f., 345f., WH. I 8, 151, 166, 168, Loth RC 43, 401 f., Thurneysen KZ. 48, 71; 59, 7 Anm., Much Hoops Reallex. s. v. Harudes.
Pages: 531-532
PIE database: PIE database
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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳarḳar-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Georgian: ḳarḳar-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): высокий утес
Georgian meaning (Engl.): high cliff
Notes and references: Грузинскую основу Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 340-341) сравнивает с ПИЕ *ker- 'скала, камень', алт. *k`āre 'край' < ностр. *ḳarV 'скала, крутая возвышенность'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kar-
Meaning : 1 bank 2 bridge, border
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kar-ai
Proto-Telugu : *kar-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kar- (?)
Brahui : karr-ak
Notes : The Brahui form is dubious since it has k- and not x-.
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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kar-ai
Meaning : shore
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : karai
Tamil meaning : shore, bank, ridge of a field, border of a cloth
Malayalam : kara
Malayalam meaning : shore, riverside, land (opp. to sea), coloured border of a cloth
Malayalam derivates : karayan striped cloth; karal border, margin, edge
Kannada : kare
Kannada meaning : bank, shore, boundary, border of a cloth
Kodagu : kare
Kodagu meaning : bank
Tulu : karè
Tulu meaning : seashore, bank of a river, border, coloured border of a cloth
Proto-Nilgiri : *kar(ä)
Number in DED : 1293
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kar(ä)
Meaning : bank; stripes
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kar "coloured woven stripes on end of cloth; pair-word with kāṛ field"
Toda : kar "coloured woven stripes on end of cloth; bank of river, horizon line, direction"
Number in DED : 1293
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kar-
Meaning : shore, bank
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kara
Inscriptional Telugu : kar_iti, kar_(a)ta, kar_r_u "bank"
Additional forms : Also ? garusu boundary
Number in DED : 1293
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_inscr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kar-
Meaning : near
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *kar-um
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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *kar-um
Meaning : near
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : karrum
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : karrum
Koya Gondi : garre
Yeotmal Gondi : karum, karuŋ
Chindwara Gondi : karrum, karruŋ
Adilabad Gondi : karum (SR)
Number in DED : 1293
Number in CVOTGD : 534, 1055
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-gondi_y,gonet-gondi_ch,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : karr-ak
Meaning : bank. shore, brim, border, edging, near
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 1293
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