Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *k`ā́p`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bark, skin
Russian meaning: кора, кожа
Turkic: *Kāpuk
Mongolian: *kawda-
Tungus-Manchu: *xabda(-nsa)
Korean: *kàph- / *kǝ̀ph-
Japanese: *kapa
Comments: Martin 225, KW 201, Владимирцов 255, АПиПЯЯ 15, 38-39, 67, 92, 274, Лексика 107. Regular except for tone variation in Japanese, possibly due to interaction of several similar PA roots (see *gébó, *k`èpà, *k`i̯ā̀bu, *kìp`é).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *Kāpuk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark (n.) 2 shell
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 скорлупа
Karakhanid: qabɨq (Tefs.) 1, 2
Turkish: kabuk 1, 2
Tatar: qabɨq 1, 2
Middle Turkic: qapuq 1 (MA, AH)
Uzbek: qɔbiq 1, 2
Uighur: qobuq (R, o-t) 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: GabɨG 1, 2
Turkmen: GābɨG 1, 2
Khakassian: xabɨx (Kach.) 1, 2
Shor: qabɨq 2
Oyrat: qabɨq 1, 2
Chuvash: xobъ 1, 2
Tuva: xavɨq 2
Kirghiz: qabɨq 1, 2
Kazakh: qabɨq 1, 2
Noghai: qabɨq 1, 2
Bashkir: qabɨq 1, 2
Balkar: qabuq 1, 2
Gagauz: qap, qabɨ 1, 2 'external cover, covering'
Karaim: qabux 1, 2
Karakalpak: qabɨq 1, 2
Kumyk: qabuq 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 234, TMN 3, 368-9, ЭСТЯ 5, 168, Лексика 107, Федотов 2, 358.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *kawda-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark 2 page
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 страница
Written Mongolian: qaudasu, qaɣudasu(n) 2 (L 909)
Khalkha: xūdas 2
Buriat: xūdaha(n) 2
Kalmuck: xūdъsṇ 1
Ordos: xūdasu 2
Comments: KW 201. Although later contaminations were possible, Mong. *kawda- can not be explained as borrowed from Turk. qaɣad 'paper' ( < Arab.), despite Щербак 1997, 126. Mong. > Man. xoušan etc., see Doerfer MT 142.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xabda(-nsa)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: leaf
Russian meaning: лист
Evenki: abdanna
Even: ebdъnrъ
Negidal: abdana
Spoken Manchu: afǝhǝ (2137)
Literary Manchu: abdaxa / afaxa
Jurchen: ha-[bxa] (119)
Ulcha: χabdata
Orok: xamdata
Nanai: χabdata (Nkh.), χaftaca (Bik.)
Oroch: abdasa
Udighe: abdehä
Comments: ТМС 1, 5. Man. > Dag. abug, abuk 'sheet (of paper)' (Тод. Даг. 118).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Korean etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Korean: *kàph- / *kǝ̀ph-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bark 2 skin
Russian meaning: 1 кора 2 кожа
Modern Korean: k:ǝpčil 1, k:aphɨl, k:ǝphɨl, k:ǝptegi 2
Middle Korean: kàphɨ́r, kàphắr, kǝpčir 1, 2
Comments: Nam 8, 38, KED 29, 89, 103.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

Search within this database


Japanese etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Japanese: *kapa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: skin, leather; bark
Russian meaning: кожа; кора
Old Japanese: kapa
Middle Japanese: kàfà
Tokyo: kawá
Kyoto: káwá 'skin', kàwá 'leather'
Kagoshima: kawá
Nase: kó
Shuri: kā́
Yonakuni: kā̀
Comments: JLTT 445. The tone opposition in Kyoto points to PJ *kápá 'skin' vs. *kàpà or *kàpá 'leather' (the RJ and Tokyo accentuation pointing to *kàpà, but Kyoto - to *kàpá).
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-yon,japet-comments,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *ḲopV
Meaning: bark
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *k`i̯ā̀bu (cf. also *k`āp`a 2)
Uralic: *kopa
Kartvelian: Georg. ḳep- 'sheet (of paper)'
References: МССНЯ 344; ND 1109 *ḳAP_V 'leaf', 1117 *Ḳo(')ap[U] 'bark' (+ Chad.). Maybe indeed more than one root: for Alt. *k`i̯ā̀bu cf. also Sv. q̇uwa 'bark, crust' (see ND 1946 *q̇EwV 'bark, crust, shell').
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Uralic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 355
Proto: *kopa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: skin, bark
German meaning: Haut, Rinde
Estonian: kõba (gen. kõba) 'Kieferrinde'
Mordovian: kuvo (E) 'корка', kuva (M) 'корка, кора'
Mari (Cheremis): kuwo (Szil.) 'Hülse, Schale, Schuppe'; [KB kawaštǝ̑, U kowašte 'Balg, Fell, Haut' - rejected by Redei]
Udmurt (Votyak): ku (S K G) 'Haut, Fell'
Komi (Zyrian): ku (S PO) 'Fell, Haut, Balg, Leder'
Nenets (Yurak): χoba (O), kopa (Nj.) 'Fell, Tierhaut; Baumrinde'
Enets (Yen): koba 'Haut', kuba 'Leder, Fell'
Nganasan (Tawgi): kufu (gen. kubu) 'Haut', (NyK) kuho, kuhu
Selkup: k͔óp(э) (Ta.), k͔oppα (Ke.), qop (Ty.) 'Haut'
Kamass: kuba, kuwa id.
Janhunen's version: (95) *kopa
Sammalahti's version: *kopa
Addenda: Koib. kuba 'Fell, Haut'; Mot. ko id.; Karag. когото
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : KVPV
Meaning : bark
Eurasiatic : *ḲopV
Afroasiatic : Chad. *kʷVHVb- 'bark'
Sino-Caucasian : *xqwVpV (~-b-)
Austric : PAN *kupkup 'cover with a thin layer', PAA *gVp 'cover'
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-kóbà 'skin'; *-gàbò 'shield'.
Reference : МССНЯ 344; ND 1117.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-afr,globet-reference,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xqwVpV (~-b-)
Meaning: covering, skin
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *gjū̆p
Burushaski: *gap
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

Search within this database


Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *gjū̆p
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cover
Chinese: *gǝ̄p to close, shut.
Tibetan: skjob (p. (b)skjabs, f. bskjab, i. skjob(s)) to protect, defend, preserve.
Kachin: gup2 to cover, as with a hat, gǝgup2 a hat.
Lushai: khūp to cover up (as head), khup (khuʔ) to close or shut (as book).
Lepcha: a-kóp 'feather(s)' ( < 'covering'?)
Comments: Garo dźaʔ-kop sandal (dźaʔ foot). Sh. 448.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

Search within this database


Chinese characters :

Search within this database
etymology.cgi needs just one record for every base, 0 found

Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *gap
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: hide, skin
Yasin: gap
Hunza: gap
Nagar: gap
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database


Austric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austric: *kVP
Meaning: cover
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *gVp +MU; also *gVp 'trap'
Miao-Yao parallels: Yao khap.1 to cover tightly
Proto-Austronesian: *aŋkeb
Austronesian meaning: cover, lid, seal; *cu(ŋ)kup to cover; *kupkup cover; (Ache sɨrɨkap chicken cage made of bamboo; khôp cover)
Austronesian code: 1:46
Proto-Thai: kap.A trap; ZhT, Kd kup 'cover'
Notes: Prnum may be also 380
References: Peiros 1989; Ben 258-259, Peiros 1998, 90 (suggesting a loan Tai < Chin.)
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,austr-tai,austr-notes,austr-bibl,

Search within this database


Austro-Asiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *gVp
Meaning: cover
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: EK *gap / *gɨp
Proto-Monic: *kǝp
Proto-Palaungic: Wa *gap
Proto-Khmu: *gu:p
References: S-355
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,aaet-bib,

Search within this database


Katuic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Katuic: *gap / *gɨp
Meaning: cover
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-East Katuic: *gǝp / *gɨp
References: TK16.88
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

Search within this database


East Katuic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-East Katuic: *gǝp / *gɨp
Meaning: cover
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Lao Katu: kǝ̂p
Lao Katu meaning: to cover up; k<an>ǝ̂p covering
Kri: kɨp
Kantu dialects: gɨp
Triw: gɨp
Katu dialects (1): gǝp
Katu dialects (4): gǝp
Katu meaning: to cover food
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,ekatet-kr,ekatet-kntt,ekatet-tr,ekatet-and,ekatet-kph,ekatet-katme,

Search within this database


Viet-Muong etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Viet-Muong:
Meaning: cover with a lid
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Ruc: *kɨ:p.3
Ruc (Russian field rec.): kɨ:p.3
Ruc (Lo'i's rec.): kɨ:p.3
Ruc meaning: to cover with a lid
Notes: F-97: *kǝp
References: NVL142
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-prru,vimet-rucr,vimet-rucl,vimet-rucme,vimet-note,vimet-bib,

Search within this database


Monic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Monic: *kǝp
Meaning: cover, lid
Presyllable: Cǝŋ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Modern Mon: sakuip, dakuip, gakuip
Middle Mon: sakuip
Nyakur: ŋkǝp
Nyakur meaning: cover, lid
References: V163; V163a; S-355
monet-meaning,monet-prpr,monet-prnum,monet-word,monet-mm,monet-tc,monet-tcme,monet-bib,

Search within this database


Palaung-Wa etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Palaung-Wa: *gap
Meaning: to cover
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Wa: *gap
Proto-Plang: *kaɨp; *ga(ɨ)p
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prwa,pawaet-prpl,

Search within this database


Wa etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Wa:
Meaning: to cover
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Paraok: kap.B
Paraok meaning: to cover
Wa: kap.B
Wa meaning: to cover
prwaet-meaning,prwaet-prnum,prwaet-praok,prwaet-praokme,prwaet-meng,prwaet-mengme,

Search within this database


Plang etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Plang: *kaɨp; *ga(ɨ)p
Meaning: to cover
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Bulang: kap.1
Bulang meaning: to cover
Konto: kap.B.1
Konto meaning: to cover (pot)
Samtao (Paulsen): kǝp.2
Samtao (Paulsen) meaning: to cover
References: P-323: *káp.1
prplet-meaning,prplet-prnum,prplet-mane,prplet-manme,prplet-kont,prplet-kontme,prplet-sap,prplet-sapme,prplet-bib,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
1130971707813
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov