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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kúlme
Meaning: a k. of ungulate
Russian meaning: вид копытного животного
Turkic: *Kulum
Mongolian: *kulan
Tungus-Manchu: *ku(l)ma-
Japanese: *kuáma
Comments: Turkic and TM reflect a common derivative *kúmle-ŕV.
altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kulum
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: foal
Russian meaning: жеребенок
Old Turkic: qulun (Yen.)
Karakhanid: qulun (MK)
Turkish: kulun
Tatar: qolɨn
Middle Turkic: qulun, qulum (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qulun (dial.)
Uighur: qulun (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: qulun, qulum, qulɨm, qolun
Azerbaidzhan: Gulun
Turkmen: Gulun
Khakassian: xulun
Oyrat: qulun
Chuvash: xъʷm
Yakut: kulun
Tuva: qulun
Kirghiz: qulun
Kazakh: qulɨn
Noghai: qulɨn
Bashkir: qolon
Karakalpak: qulɨn
Comments: EDT 622, TMN 3, 506-507, ЭСТЯ 6, 132-133.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kulan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ass
Russian meaning: осел
Written Mongolian: qulan, külen (L 984)
Middle Mongolian: qulan (SH), qulan (MA)
Khalkha: xulan
Buriat: xulan
Kalmuck: xulŋ, xulṇ
Ordos: xulan
Comments: Mong. > Turk. qulan (see ЭСТЯ 6, 127-128, Doerfer TMN 3, 557); > Manchu qulan (see Rozycki 148).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ku(l)ma-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: maral, Siberian stag
Russian meaning: изюбр
Evenki: kumaka, kumaran
Negidal: komaxa
Nanai: qomaqa
Oroch: kumaka
Solon: xụmxā
Comments: ТМС 1, 430. Medial -l- is not reflected (it is best preserved in Manchu which has lost the root); but cf. also Evk. kulkuńa, kulčen 'a k. of deer' (perhaps < *kulm-čen, -kuńa with loss of -m-, but preservation of -l-).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kuáma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: foal, colt
Russian meaning: жеребенок, жеребец
Old Japanese: kwoma
Middle Japanese: kómá
Tokyo: kóma, komá
Kyoto: kòmá
Kagoshima: kóma
Comments: JLTT 455. The accent is somewhat unclear (Kyoto is quite aberrant, but Tokyo and Kagoshima may still point to a high tone on the first syllable). The word is usually treated as kwo 'child' + uma 'horse', but the order of the components is quite unusual.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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